Woodward "Woody" Stanford
Published

Daedalus PSC (Personal SpaceCraft) Detailed Mockup

This foamboard and card stock model simulates ever rivet, I-beam, wire and pipe in the Stanford Systems Daedalus PSC suborbital system.

ExpertFull instructions providedOver 41 days58
Daedalus PSC (Personal SpaceCraft) Detailed Mockup

Story

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Custom parts and enclosures

X3D of an ouput of MATBETA of a Daedalus PSC

This is a 3D representation of Daedalus driven DIRECTLY off of the FEM/FEA simulation of its mass distribution. Sorry for the drab colors but its mostly made of metal and dark carbon-fiber (it uses the literal color values and probably reflects what a DPSC looks like sans paint).

Schematics

Flight Computers and Networking

Just how to wire one of the birds. Recommend the newer 1Mbps RS-485 that's available on the PIC18F UARTs.

D-Beta Construction Manual

There is NO other paper on the entire Internet that will tell you, as an individual citizen, HOW to build your own spacecraft. Not NASA, not RosCosmos, not SpaceX or whoever. Download it and keep it in your private records. Has EVERY step necessary to build an actual suborbital.

Code

Airframe Analysis

C/C++
Just compile it in C (UNIX or MinGW) with "gcc daedalus1.c -o daedalus1 -lm" and run "daedalus1". Just spits out a bunch of number relating to chamber pressure, compression load, drag, and weights. AND EITHER A GREEN OR A RED for if it will fly or not.

If you don't have a C compiler this is all coded in ANSI/Posix-compliant C so you can cut and paste the code and run it here:

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/compile_c_online.php

...just go to compiler options and put a "-lm" that includes C's standard math library, compile it first, then Execute.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>

#define PI 3.14159 //just define pi for use

#define d_steel 0.283 //mass desity of mild steel in lbs/in^3
#define d_aluminum 0.098 //mass density of aluminum in lbs/in^3
#define d_carbon_fiber_epoxy 0.054 //mass density of carbon fiber/epoxy in lbs/in^3
#define d_epdm_rubber 0.039 //mass density of EPDM rubber (vulcanized) in lbs/in^3
#define d_paper_phenolic 0.047 //mass density of Paper/Phenolic in lbs/in^3 (verified)
#define d_ap_al_mg_r45 0.06346 //mass density of hot composite propellant in lbs/in^3
#define d_plywood 0.0196 //mass density of plywood in lbs/in^3

//General Design Constants
double or=48.000; //outer radius of airframe (a constant within the design)
double ir=40.000; //inner radius of airframe (a constant within the design)
double pw=4.000; //pilar width (a constant within the design....usually 4"x4")

double rm_length=65.000; //length of rm module
double esm_length=65.000; //length of esm module
double fcm_length=24.000; //length of fcm module
double dm_length=12.000; //length of drogue module (using revised design)

double mc_length=288.000; //length of motor casing (in inches)
double liner_length=42.000*6.0; //length of insulating liner in motor (in inches)
double grain_length=42.000; //length of a single propellant grain (in inches)
double num_grains=6.0; //number of grains in motor

double pm_bolt_diameter=0.375; //the diameter of the bolts that affix the bulkheads to the casing
double num_bulkhead_bolts=12.0*2.0; //the number of bolts retaining the bulkhead

double operating_pressure=500.0; //chamber pressure in psi
double maximum_operating_pressure=650.0; //maximum tolerable chamber pressure in psi
double maximum_bulkhead_force; //maximum tolerable pressure on bulkhead in lbs

double nosecone_length=59.000; //the length of the nosecone measure from base to apex in inches

//PART WEIGHTS
double ib1_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of IB1 part (in pounds)
double p_area; //convenient variable to hold pillar cross-sectional area value
double p_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight per unit length of P part (in pounds)
double t_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight per unit length of T part (in lbs)
double pc_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of stanard plywood circle (in lbs)

// (Subcomponent Weight and Other Variables)
double ib1_cph=1.000; //IB1 curved inner plate height
double mc_mass; //PM motor casing weight
double il_mass; //insulating liner weight for motor
double nozzle_carrier_mass; //steel turned cylender housing PP nozzle insert on PM
double rear_bulkhead_mass; //rear bulkhead part on PM
double front_bulkhead_mass; //front bulkhead part on PM
double nozzle_mass; //Paper/Phenolic truned nozzle slug
double retaining_ring_mass; //steel retaining ring on read bulkhead
double rear_section_mass; //mass of entire read bulkhead assembly on PM

//MODULE/UNIT WEIGHTS
double rm_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of Recovery Module
double esm_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of Extended Science Module
double fcm_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of Flight Control Module

double dm_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of Drogue Module
double pm_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of Propulsion Module

double fa_mass; //convenient variable to hold weight of rear Fin Assembly

//ROCKET WEIGHTS
double r_mass; //Rocket total weight (EMPTY)
double prop_mass=20422.95; //mass of propellant (import manually from FPRED)
double lr_mass; //Rocket Total Weight (Launch Ready)

//GENERIC USAGE VARIABLES
double a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j; //generic variables for use

double m1,m2,m3,m4,m5,m6,m7,m8,m9; //generic mass variables for use
double l1,l2,l3,l4,l5,l6,l7,l8,l9; //generic mass variables for use
double a1,a2,a3,a4,a5,a6,a7,a8,a9; //generic area variables for use
double v1,v2,v3,v4,v5,v6,v7,v8,v9; //generic volume variables for use

double pl; //pillar length variable for use

//*** WALL THICKNESS PARAMETERS ***
// Note: all design changes to affect weight and performance should be "driven"
// to these thickness variables.
double wt=0.125; //overall wall thickness constant
double ib1_wt=0.125; //IB1 wall thickness
double mc_wt=0.800; //Motor Casing wall thickness
double liner_wt=0.500; //motor insulating liner wall thickness
double nosecone_wt=0.250; //wall thickness of nosecone shell
double pc_wt=0.750; //thicness of plywood circles

//technical constants
double ss_high_speed_steel=80000000000; //shear strenth in Pa (N/m^2)
double bolts_shear_strength; //calculated value for combined holding power of bulkhead bolts (in lbs)
double carbon_fiber_epoxy_tensile_strength=1185000000; //tensile strenght of carbon-fiber/epoxy
double pm_axial_tensile_stress; //variable to contain calculated tensile stress axially on motor casing wall
double mc_tensile_strength; //variable to contain calculates tensile strenght axially on motor casing wall

calculateitemmasses()
{

	//IB1: I-Beam 1
	//calculate top plate
	a1=pow(or,2.0)*PI-pow(ir,2.0)*PI; //gives area of a circular area
	a2=a1-(8.0*pw*pw); //cuts the pillars out of the circular area
	a3=a2/8.0; //gives us the area for the top pate in an IB1

	//calculate curved inner plate
	l1=2.0*(or+ir/2.0)*PI; //gives us a hoop the size we need
	l2=l1-pw*8.0; //cut out the pillar widths
	l3=l2/8.0; //gives us the lenght of an individual curved inner plate for an IB1

	v1=a3*ib1_wt; //multiply by wall thickness and we get the volume of the top plate
	v2=v1*2.0; //there is a top and bottom plate so multiply by 2

	v3=l3*ib1_cph*ib1_wt; //multiply length by height by thickness to get ICP volume
	v4=v2+v3; //add all the subcomponent volumes to get the total volume for the 

	//weight saver: drill holes in top and bottom plates (11 x 1.000" holes)
	v5=PI*1.000*11.0*2.0*ib1_wt;

	m1=(v4-v5)*d_steel; //obtain mass of an IB1 part by multiplying my its material's unit density
	ib1_mass=m1; //store in convenient variable


	//P: Pillar (by Length)
	//calculate the weight of pillar material by length (inches)
	a1=(pw*pw)-((pw-wt*2.0)*(pw-wt*2.0));
	p_area=a1; //pillar crosssectional area....need this to do compressive loading calculations
	p_mass=a1*d_steel; //to use just multiply this value by the length of the pillar in inches to give mass of pillar


	//T: aluminum Tubing (by length)
	//calculate the weight of tubing material by length (inches)
	//this standard aluminum tubing is 1"x2"x3/8" thick
	a1=(1.000*2.000)-((1.000-0.375*2.0)*(2.000-0.375*2.0));
	t_mass=a1*d_aluminum;


	//PC: plywood circle
	a1=pow(or,2.0)*PI-8.0*(pw*pw);
	v1=a1*pc_wt;
	pc_mass=v1*d_plywood;

}



main()
{
int design_status=1;

double max_velocity, max_drag_force;
double min_yield_strength=36000.0; //in psi
double compressive_force; //in lbs
double maximum_compressive_force; //in lbs

calculateitemmasses();

//preamble
printf("***PART WEIGHTS ***\n");
printf("The weight of an IB1 part is %.3f lbs\n",ib1_mass);
printf("The weight of 1 foot (12 inches) of pillar is %.3f lbs\n\n",p_mass*12.0);
printf("\n");


//calculate the weight of a RM (Recovery Module/Nosecone)
//nosecone shell
v1=4.0/3.0*PI*or*or*nosecone_length;
v2=4.0/3.0*PI*(or-nosecone_wt)*(or-nosecone_wt)*(nosecone_length-nosecone_wt);
v1=v1/2.0; //the nosecone is HALF of an elipsoid
v2=v2/2.0;
v3=v1-v2;
m1=v3*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //mass of nosecone shell
printf("\n   RM: nosecone shell: %.3f lbs\n",m1); //debug

//streamer subassembly
m2=pow(37.250/2.0,2.0)*PI*1.000*d_plywood; //mass of upper plywood circle; 37" diameter, 1" thick
m3=15.000*PI*15.000*0.25*d_aluminum; //mass of streamer aluminum cylinder; 15" diameter, 15" high, wt=0.25"
printf("   RM: streamer assembly: upper plywood circle: %.3f lbs\n",m2); //debug
printf("   RM: streamer assembly: aluminum streamer can: %.3f lbs\n",m3); //debug

//streamer
m4=30.000; //guestimation of streamer/drogue required for decent stabilization
//REPLACE WITH BETTER NUMBER AS NEEDED!!!

//parachute subassembly
m5=(pow(47.500/2.0,2.0)*PI-pow(30.000/2.0,2.0)*PI)*1.000*d_plywood; //mass of lower plywood circle: 47" OD, 30" ID, 1" thick
m6=30.000*PI*34.500*0.25*d_aluminum; //mass of parachute aluminum cylinder; 30" diameter, 34" high, wt=0.25"
printf("   RM: parachute assembly: lower plywood circle: %.3f lbs\n",m5); //debug
printf("   RM: parachute assembly: aluminum parachute can: %.3f lbs\n",m6); //debug
printf("\n"); //debug

//cargo parachute
m9=125.000; //weight of a military G-12 cargo parachute
 
rm_mass=m1+m2+m3+m4+m5+m6+m9;

//calculate the weight of an ESM
m1=8.0*5.0*ib1_mass; //mass of ESM I Beams
m2=8.0*esm_length*p_mass; //mass of ESM's pillars
m3=4.0*pc_mass; //mass of plywood circles

m9=200.0*2.0; //two space pilots

esm_mass=m1+m2+m3+m9;

printf("   CM: I-Beams is %.3f lbs\n",m1); //debug
printf("   CM: Pilars is %.3f lbs\n",m2); //debug
printf("   CM: Plywood circles is %.3f lbs\n",m3); //debug

printf("   CM: Space Pilots is %.3f lbs\n",m9); //debug
printf("   CM (Crew Module) TOTAL is %.3f lbs\n\n",esm_mass); //debug


//calculate the weight of an FCM
m1=8.0*2.0*ib1_mass; //mass of FCM I-Beams
m2=8.0*fcm_length*p_mass; //mass of FCM's pillars
m3=4.0*21.000; //mass of monopropellant types (small SQUBA tank - aluminum - weight 21 lbs empty)
m4=8.000*PI*20.000*0.25*4.0*d_aluminum; //mass of instrumentation cans
m5=pow(4.000,2.0)*PI*1.000*0.20*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy*8; //aproximate mass of intrumentation bulkheads (the 0.20 is 20% due to ribbing)
m6=248.000*t_mass; //mass of instumentation frame aluminum tubing
m7=40.000*p_mass; //aproximation of steel supports that connect to intramentation frame

fcm_mass=m1+m2+m3+m4+m5+m6+m7;

printf("   FCM: I-Beams is %.3f lbs\n",m1); //debug
printf("   FCM: Pillars is %.3f lbs\n",m2); //debug
printf("   FCM: Monopropellant tanks is %.3f lbs\n",m3); //debug
printf("   FCM: Instrumentation Cans is %.3f lbs\n",m4); //debug
printf("   FCM: Instrumentation Bulkheads is %.3f lbs\n",m5); //debug
printf("   FCM: Instrumentation Frame is %.3f lbs\n",m6); //debug
printf("   FCM: Steel Supports is %.3f lbs\n",m7); //debug

printf("\n");

//calculate the weight of an DM
m1=8.0*2.0*ib1_mass; //mass of DM I-Beams
m2=8.0*dm_length*p_mass; //mass of DM's pillars
m3=(14.000*PI*10.000*0.25+pow(7.000,2.0)*PI*0.25)*d_aluminum*2.0; //mass of both drogue cans (14" diameter, 10" length, 0.25" thickness)

//Alternate Drogue Module design that uses very flat module and hardpoints for stabilzation
//comment this section out to use original design; this one weights less
m1=8.0*ib1_mass; //mass of DM I-Beams
m2=8.0*dm_length*0.666*p_mass; //mass of DM's pillars
m3=(14.000*PI*8.000*0.125+pow(7.000,2.0)*PI*0.125)*d_aluminum*2.0; //mass of both drogue cans (14" diameter, 8" length, 0.125" thickness)

m9=30.000*2.0; //guestimating weight of two drogue chutes appropriate for controlled descent of spent PM
dm_mass=m1+m2+m9+m3;

//calculate the weight of an PM (Propulsion Module)
//front bulkhead
m1=pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI*0.500*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //mass of upper circle; aprox. 46" diameter, 1.0" thick
m2=2.500*0.250*229.000*2.0*2.0*0.8*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //close aproximation of honeycomb mass based on a "length" of the plate bein 229" long total
m3=(pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI-pow(or-mc_wt-0.500,2.0)*PI)*3.000*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //ring around bulkhead (wall thickness:1.000")
front_bulkhead_mass=m1+m2+m3;
printf("   PM: front bulkhead: %.3f lbs\n",front_bulkhead_mass); //debug
printf("\n");

//rear bulkead
m1=pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI*0.500*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //mass of lower circle; aprox. 46" diameter, 0.750" thick
m2=2.500*0.250*165.000*2.0*2.0*0.75*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //close aproximation of honeycomb mass based on a "length" of the plate being 165" long total
m3=(pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI-pow(or-mc_wt-0.500,2.0)*PI)*3.000*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //ring around bulkhead (wall thickness:")
m3=(pow(24.750,2.0)*PI-pow(24.000,2.0)*PI)*2.000*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //ring around nozzle carrier (wall thickness:0.750")
rear_bulkhead_mass=m1+m2+m3;
printf("   PM: rear bulkhead is %.3f lbs\n",rear_bulkhead_mass); //debug

//nozzle carrier
m1=(pow(23.000,2.0)*PI-pow(22.500,2.0)*PI)*16.000*d_steel; //carrier casing (wall thickness:")
m2=(pow(23.000,2.0)*PI-pow(19.000,2.0)*PI)*0.250*d_steel; //carrier rear ring (wall thickness:")
m3=(pow(30.000,2.0)*PI-pow(22.000,2.0)*PI)*0.250*d_steel; //carrier front ring (wall thickness:")
nozzle_carrier_mass=m1+m2+m3;
printf("   PM: rear bulkhead: nozzle carrier is %.3f lbs\n",nozzle_carrier_mass); //debug

//nozzle
//IMPORTANT: requires revision of design from slug diameter down 2->4"
//7.5" nozzle throat diamter indicates usage of AP/Al/R45 propellant
v1=pow(18.000,2.0)*PI*16.000; //start with a solid cylindar
v2=PI*16.000/3*(pow(16.000,2.0)+16.000*6.5+pow(7.500,2.0)); //calculate a negative volume of the frustrum hole thru it
v3=v1-v2; //subtract to get the slug's actual volume of material
nozzle_mass=v3*d_paper_phenolic;
printf("   PM: rear bulkhead:nozzle slug is %.3f lbs\n",nozzle_mass); //debug

//retaining ring
retaining_ring_mass=(pow(35.000,2.0)*PI-pow(16.000,2.0)*PI)*0.250*d_steel; //carrier rear ring (wall thickness:0.375")
printf("   PM: rear bulkhead: retaining ring is %.3f lbs\n",retaining_ring_mass); //debug

rear_section_mass=retaining_ring_mass+nozzle_mass+nozzle_carrier_mass+rear_bulkhead_mass;
printf("   PM: rear bulkhead section TOTAL is %.3f lbs\n",rear_section_mass); //debug

printf("\n");

//motor casing
a1=(pow(or,2.0)*PI)-(pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI); //cross-sectional area of casing
v1=a1*mc_length; //multiply by casing length to give total volume
m1=v1*d_carbon_fiber_epoxy; //multiply by unit density of casing material to give weight
mc_mass=m1;
printf("   PM: motor casing is %.3f lbs\n",mc_mass); //debug

//insulating liners (EPDM)
a1=(pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI)-(pow(or-mc_wt-liner_wt,2.0)*PI); //cross-sectional area of casing
v1=a1*liner_length; //multiply by casing length to give total volume
m1=v1*d_epdm_rubber; //multiply by unit density of casing material to give weight

v2=pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI-pow(16.0,2.0)*PI*1.0; //gives volume of bottom insulator of a circular area
v3=pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*PI*0.8; //gives volume of top insulator
m2=(v2+v3)*d_epdm_rubber;

il_mass=m1+m2;
printf("   PM: insulating liners are %.3f lbs\n",il_mass); //debug

printf("\n");

pm_mass=mc_mass+il_mass+front_bulkhead_mass+rear_section_mass; //add all the part/subocompent weights together to get PM total weight
//printf("   PM is %.3f lbs\n",pm_mass); //debug
printf("\n");



printf("*** MODULE WEIGHTS ***\n");
printf("The weight of a RM (Recovery Module/Nosecone) is %.3f lbs\n",rm_mass);
printf("The weight of a bare ESM (Crew Module - WITH PILOTS) is %.3f lbs\n",esm_mass);
printf("The weight of a FCM (Flight Control Module) is %.3f lbs\n",fcm_mass);
printf("The weight of a DM (Drogue Module - loaded) is %.3f lbs\n",dm_mass);
printf("The weight of a PM (Propulsion Module) (EMPTY) is %.3f lbs\n",pm_mass);
printf("The weight of a PM (Propulsion Module) (FUELED) is %.3f lbs\n",pm_mass+prop_mass);
printf("The weight of a bare Fin Assembly is %.3f lbs\n",fa_mass);

//calculate total rocket weight by adding stack weights together
r_mass=rm_mass+esm_mass+fcm_mass+dm_mass+pm_mass+fa_mass;
lr_mass=r_mass+prop_mass;

printf("ROCKET TOTAL WEIGHT (EMPTY) is %.3f lbs\n",r_mass);
printf("Propellant Weight is %.3f lbs\n",prop_mass);
printf("ROCKET TOTAL WEIGHT (LAUNCH-READY) is %.3f lbs\n",lr_mass);
printf("\n");

printf("Summary:\n\n");
printf("Airframe Total Mass (LAUNCH READY) is %.3f lbs\n",rm_mass+esm_mass+fcm_mass);
printf("Booster Total Mass (EMPTY) is %.3f lbs\n",dm_mass+pm_mass);
printf("Booster Total Mass (LAUNCH READY) is %.3f lbs\n",dm_mass+pm_mass+prop_mass);
printf("Daedalus Total Mass (DRY) is approximately %.3f lbs\n",rm_mass+esm_mass+fcm_mass+dm_mass+pm_mass);
printf("Daedalus Total Mass (LAUNCH READY) is %.3f lbs\n",rm_mass+esm_mass+fcm_mass+dm_mass+pm_mass+prop_mass);
printf("\n");

//calculate the maximum compressive force due to drag
max_velocity=340.0; //hardcode daedalus maximum velocity in (m/s)
a1=pow(or*0.0254,2.0)*PI;
max_drag_force=0.5*1.225*pow(max_velocity,2.0)*0.022*a1;

//printf("The cross-sectional area of the daedalus is: %.3f m^2\n",a1);
printf ("The maximim drag force is %.3f kg\n",max_drag_force);

compressive_force=max_drag_force*2.2; //in pounds
maximum_compressive_force=min_yield_strength*p_area; //in pounds

printf("Compressive force is %.3f, maximum compressive force is %.3f\n",compressive_force,maximum_compressive_force); //debug

//calculate force on 1" band around motor casing to give axial tensile stress
m1=2.0*PI*pow(or-mc_wt,2.0)*maximum_operating_pressure*1.000;
pm_axial_tensile_stress=m1;

//calculate tensile strength of carbon-fiber epoxy at current mc_wt (times 1.000" so comparing apples and apples)
a1=mc_wt*1.000;
mc_tensile_strength=a1*carbon_fiber_epoxy_tensile_strength;

printf("axial tensile stress (1\" band) is %.3f, mc_tensile_strength (1\" band) is %.3f\n",pm_axial_tensile_stress,mc_tensile_strength); //debug

//calculate maximum force on pm bulkhead
a1=PI*pow(or-mc_wt,2.0); //area of top bulkhead
maximum_bulkhead_force=a1*maximum_operating_pressure; //multiply area by pressure to give force on bulkhead (in lbs)

//do check on shear on the bulkhead bolts
bolts_shear_strength=PI*pow(pm_bolt_diameter,2.0)*num_bulkhead_bolts*ss_high_speed_steel;

printf("Force on bulkhead is %.3f lbs, Bolts combined shear strength is %.3f lbs\n",maximum_bulkhead_force,bolts_shear_strength); //debug

design_status=1; //start at GREEN

//compressive drag forces on Airframe (longitudinal) check
if (maximum_compressive_force<compressive_force)
{
	printf("Error: drag force exceeds maximum compressive force of pillars\n");
	design_status=0; //it is now RED
}

//bulkhead ejection check (longitudinal)
if (maximum_bulkhead_force>bolts_shear_strength)
{
	printf("Error: maximum operating pressure exceeds capacity of retaining bolts to hold bulkhead in place (longitudinally)\n");
	design_status=0; //it is now RED
}

//motor casing integrity check (axial)
if (pm_axial_tensile_stress>mc_tensile_strength)
{
	printf("Error: maximum operating pressure puts too much stress on motor casing walls (axially)\n");
	design_status=0; //it is now RED
}

//RED or GREEN to fly
if (design_status==1)
{
	printf("\nThe design is a GREEN...you are good to go.\n\n");
}
else
{
	printf("\nThe design is a RED...you need to change your design in order to fly bird. See errors for which constraints were violated.\n\n");
}

}

// CHECK THAT THE DRAG FORCE EQUATION IS GOOD OVER SUPERSONIC DOMAINS (might be the classical version) !!! CHECK THE CODE LATER!!!

Credits

Woodward "Woody" Stanford

Woodward "Woody" Stanford

3 projects • 9 followers
Beagleboard afficianado and physics "disrupter"

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