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Over the past year I have spent a lot of time porting different libraries to the Robo HAT MM1 board developed by Robotics Masters. This has lead to discovering a lot about these libraries, how they work behind the scenes and most importantly - what to do to add new boards in the future.
This part of a series of write-ups I will be doing to help others who wish to port libraries for their boards. Many of the sources of information can be vague or difficult for outsiders to understand. I hope to ‘demystify’ and explain how to achieve a successful port for everyone.
Today, we will be looking at the MakeCode platform by Microsoft. This platform is very popular for using with the microbit and Adafruit CircuitPlayground Express. There are currently only a few different board variants - mostly produced by Adafruit and some smaller community members.
This guide will help you add your board to MakeCode so you too can enjoy the benefits that it gets. It goes deeper than the documentation so that you can use your own pin names and other cool features.What is MakeCode?
Microsoft describes it as: Hands-on computing education
Microsoft MakeCode brings computer science to life for all students with fun projects, immediate results and both block and text editors for learners at different levels.Before You Begin
MakeCode makes it easy to to port your board. All you need to know is what processor model variant you are using (SAMD51, SAMD21, etc) and the rest should be straight forward.
The easiest way to approach porting your board is to look at what is a similar Adafruit board model and then start there.
Once you have all the information you need about the processor you are using, you can start to look at the software and modify it to work for your custom board.Let's Begin!
The developers of MakeCode have their own existing documentation that is publicly available. So we will start with this and expand from there.
- Install Dependencies
- Clone repository all repositories and npm install
- Project Files
- SVG Image and associated files
- Pull Request
Each step will be explained in detail below.
I used Windows 10 for all these instructions, but I believe they are platform independent.Step 1 - Environment Setup
MakeCode requests NodeJS and Node Package Manager (NPM) tools for it to run successfully.
Additionally, if you are adding or expanding the functionality you will want Docker installed as well. Without going into much detail, I will just leave the links below for you to download those programs.
These are platform independent. So they should work on both Mac, Windows and Linux.
Installing CMake (and add to path, CMAKE_C_COMPILER)
Ninja Install (and move to CMake folder)
Visual Studio 2019 (optional)Step 2 - Local Dev Environment Server
These instructions are very clear from the existing MakeCode documentation. I will put them here so everything is in one place and add some notes.
Start by making a folder called
makecode somewhere on your computer. We will use this folder to keep all the MakeCode repositories together. Make sure you run all the below commands from the
MakeCode uses 3 main repositories for enabling the application to run.
Ensure you follow these instructions carefully and run each command sequentially.
git clone https://github.com/microsoft/pxt
npm run build
git clone https://github.com/microsoft/pxt-common-packages
git clone https://github.com/microsoft/pxt-maker
npm install -g pxt
Link repositories together (add sudo for Mac/Linux)
rm -Rf node_modules/pxt-core
rm -Rf node_modules/pxt-common-packages
pxt link ../pxt
pxt link ../pxt-common-packages
At the end of running all the above commands you should end up with a folder structure like so:
At this point, you can run MakeCode and see all it's existing features. You will want to make sure it builds properly at this stage as it is still under development and can have issues. The
pxt command allows you to do many things relating to MakeCode. It is always run from the root of the
pxt-maker folder. We will just ask it to
serve the web server for now.
The first time you run
pxt serve it takes a long time to build. I have noticed it has two stages of building. So you may have to wait up to 10 minutes for the initial build to complete.
If you can load up MakeCode without issues, then you can continue to adding your own custom board.
MakeCode is dependant on your board supporting the UF2 Bootloader standard. You need to make sure that you have created a UF2 Bootloader for your custom board before continuing.
I already did a very detailed write up for UF2 Bootloader - Creating Custom Boards. Quickly jump over there and get that done now!
The absolute best way for adding a new board is to just copy and existing one and modify only the essentials to make your new board run.
All of Adafruit's Feather line of boards are included in MakeCode already. So you just need to pick the one that is the closest match to your board (same processor). Below are some examples.
- Adafruit Feather M0 - SAMD21G18A
- Adafruit ItsyBitsy M4 - SAMD51G19A
- Adafruit Feather M4 - SAMD51J19A
All of the work we do will take place in the
Let's start by copying an existing board (adafruit-itsybitsy-m4-express) and create a new board for the Robo HAT MM1 M4 (robohatmm1-m4). For this whole tutorial, replace robohatmm1-m4 with your custom board name.
cp -r adafruit-itsybitsy-m4-express/ robohatmm1-m4/
You can do this with Explorer or Finder GUIs if you prefer.
Take a look in the new folder (robohatmm1-m4) we just created to get familiar with the different files and structure.
There are two folders. These can be safely ignored as all the files inside them are automatically generated.
board.json - (generated & modified) relates to boardhd.svg and is generated in a later step. It holds the positions of important features on the SVG file.
board.svg - (generated) relates to boardhd.svg. It is a striped down version of boardhd.svg.
boardhd.svg - (created by you) your custom SVG file that has an image of your custom board with particular dimensions and specifications. It is the core part of MakeCode working successfully with your board.
config.ts - (generated & modified) closely related with your board's schematic. It contains the information that links the pins labelled on the SVG to your board's processor.
device.d.ts - (generated & modified) related to your board's schematic. Contains information about the types of functions allowed to be called with different pins.
ns.ts - (generated & modified)
pxt.json - (modified) the metadata information used to create the simulator and other parts of MakeCode run with your board. More information later on what you should customise in this file.
Step 5 - Modifying Files
README.md - (modified) not much goes on here. Just put your board name in it.
The MakeCode instructions are very straight forward on which files need to be updated and changed - they have also been improved recently to make it even easier. All of these steps are performed in the
pxt-maker/libs/<your_custom_board> directory unless otherwise stated.
Let's start with the easiest part. Create README.md file in your custom board directory.
# Robotics Masters Robo HAT MM1 M4
That's all you need in it.
Next, update the following fields in
- compileServiceVariant (if you did not pick the right processor)
In this file you can also edit the features for your board. You may have an accelerator or neopixel lights on the board that you want to support. I am currently working on a list of all the available features and will post them somewhere at the end of this guide.
pxtarget.json to include your new board. You will need to go to the root of the repository and update the bundled-dirs array. Add the name of the folder for your custom board to the end of this array. This tells pxt to compile in your board.
Next, go and create a file for your board
/docs/boards/<custom_board_name>.md. You can copy an existing board's file and just rename it. This file is not all that important.
After this you need to put an image of your board into:
/docs/static/libs/<custom_board_name>.jpg. Make sure that the dimensions of the file are no larger than 500 px x 500 px. The image does not need to be square.
I discovered this by mistake. If you do not put an image in this folder, your board does not list correctly with all the other boards.
The next steps all relate to the SVG file that MakeCode depends on to correctly work with your board.
There are some strict rules about how the file must be created. It is highly recommended that you use InkScape on Windows. Other rules include the following:
- All Pin Headers must be 15px by 15px
- The name of each LED on the board must be LED0, LED1,..., etc
- The name of the reset button must be RESETBTN
- For Serial, must have TX pin labelled as "TX" to work
- All Pins must be named how it is labelled on the board (NOTE: This can be changed later).
- Additional Pins can be named JACK_
- Name touch pins as "TOUCH"
- Remove extra components that do not have any functionality
- If using NEOPIXELs, name the NEOPIXEL LED as NEOPIXEL
- Use the existing pin names (do not create own names)
- Recommended dimensions are 500px x 500px (square, if possible)
If you follow all the above requirements and recommendations it makes the next steps easier.
Save the SVG file in the
libs/<your_custom_board> folder as
One of the steps is to minimise the SVG file by running the following command at the pxt-maker folder level.
svgo --config=svgo.yml libs/YOUR_BOARD_NAME/boardhd.svg -o libs/YOUR_BOARD_NAME/board.svg
If this command does not work, you can run it for all boards (it just takes longer).
npm run svgo
Once you have create your minified SVG (board.svg) and you are happy with it, you can put it into the Board Designer. Open up the SVG in NotePad or similar text editor and copy all the text into the text box on the Board Designer.
Hopefully below the text box will appear your SVG file with yellow highlights around the pins that it has automatically detected.
If it has found all your pins, that means you should have very few issues. Otherwise I would recommend going back and checking that you followed all the SVG requirements and recommendations above.
The Board Designer generates two files that MakeCode needs. It is not perfect. You will probably need to check the file that it has created and edit it accordingly.Step 6B - board.json
board.json maps where all the pins on your SVG appear. It has x and y coordinates so that the MakeCode editor can interact with your simulated board.
gpioPinMap array (about halfway down the file) will need to be updated so that it contains the correct names for all the parts for your board. Take a look at the Robo HAT MM1's initially generated file vs the final product.
Cleaning up this array makes it easier to find issues later on. It also looks much better. The cleaning strategy is:
- Remove duplicate names
- Remove un-needed pins (maybe capacitors, resistors)
- Rename to a standard for GND, 5V and 3V pins
- Rename data pins to be the same they appear in SVG
- Sort all the pins alphabetically
Do the same for the
fiveVoltPins and other arrays below.
The end result is a nice, clean file. Save it into your board directory with the SVG.Step 6C - config.ts
The next file to clean up is the
config.ts file. This is created on the board designer below
I personally have had little to 0% using this tool. My recommendation is to just make this file yourself from scratch. The information you need is the following:
- Pin Names
- Pin Hardware Numbers (e.g. PA12)
- Pin Aliases (if a pin has more than one function)
Check out the Robo HAT MM1 HAT as an example. It is pretty self explanatory.
NOTE: You must put in a
PIN_TX if you want serial to work. This was one of the issues I had adding my first board to MakeCode.
There is one last file that needs to be modified before you can use your board with MakeCode. The
device.d.ts file sets the the functionality of each pin. If you want a SERVO pin, you will need to set it as PWM. If you want an ANALOG pin you will want to set it as DigitalInOut.
Check out the below example and then the recommendations for how to setup this file.
- Declare all pins in the pins array at the top
Set all Communication pins as
Set all PWM pins as
Set all LEDs as
- Make sure that the alias names in this file are set the same as each other.
- Declare all buttons in the input array at the bottom
- TIP: All the names in this file will appear in MakeCode GUI.
You should now have all the following files in your custom-board folder.
You should now be able to run MakeCode with your custom board showing up in the GUI. A word of warning - your board may not run perfectly the first time and it might take some fiddling around before you have a perfect board.
Below are some of the workflows that I followed to ensure that MakeCode ran correctly. Make sure you are running these in the
pxt-maker folder. You should be ok with using just the first two.
CODAL Local Build (part 2 of guide, later date)
pxt build --local --force
If you get to this stage you should have at least a working board. This concludes creating custom MakeCode boards. It was a bit more difficult than I anticipated but fun nonetheless to now have it completed.
Microsoft supports adding or merging in your changes to MakeCode on GitHub. Be sure that you do a Pull Request and get your board added.
Special Mentions to the Microsoft Team who maintain MakeCode:
Please feel free to leave any comments down below if you get into trouble.
Thank you for reading along!
There will be a part 2 later on with how to build for CODAL and update C++ files for adding cool new sensors in the future! Stay posted for that one.