Md. Khairul Alam
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Complete Motor guide for Robotics

Robot is an electromechanical device which is capable of reacting in some way to its environment, and take autonomous decisions or action...

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Complete Motor guide for Robotics

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Code snippet #1

Plain text
    /*
    Single transistor DC Motor control
    */
     
     
    int motorPin = 3;
    int speed = 100;
     
    void setup() 
    { 
      pinMode(motorPin, OUTPUT);     
    } 
     
    void loop() 
    { 
     // analogWrite() function is used to generate PWM signal.
     // speed define the duty cycle of the PWM.
     // if the speed = 0 means duty cycle is 0 and motor is off
     // the maximum value of speed can be 255, then motor will run with maximum speed
     analogWrite(motorPin, speed); 
     delay(1000);  // wait 1 sec
     analogWrite(motorPin, 175);
     delay(1000);
     analogWrite(motorPin, 255); // maximum speed
     delay(1000); 
    } 

Code snippet #2

Plain text
const int switchPin = 2;    // switch input
const int motor1Pin = 3;    // H-bridge leg 1 (pin 2, 1A)
const int motor2Pin = 4;    // H-bridge leg 2 (pin 7, 2A)
const int enablePin = 9;    // H-bridge enable pin

//In the setup(), set all the pins for the H-bridge as outputs, 
//and the pin for the switch as an input. The set the enable pin high 
//so the H-bridge can turn the motor on.

void setup() {
    // set the switch as an input:
    pinMode(switchPin, INPUT); 
 
    // set all the other pins you're using as outputs:
    pinMode(motor1Pin, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(motor2Pin, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(enablePin, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);
 
    // set enablePin high so that motor can turn on:
    digitalWrite(enablePin, HIGH);
  }

//In the main loop() read the switch. If it’s high, 
//turn the motor one way by taking one H-bridge pin high and the other low.
// If the switch is low, reverse the direction by reversing the states of
// the two H-bridge pins.
void loop() {
    // if the switch is high, motor will turn on one direction:
    if (digitalRead(switchPin) == HIGH) {
      digitalWrite(motor1Pin, LOW);   // set leg 1 of the H-bridge low
      digitalWrite(motor2Pin, HIGH);  // set leg 2 of the H-bridge high
    }
    // if the switch is low, motor will turn in the other direction:
    else {
      digitalWrite(motor1Pin, HIGH);  // set leg 1 of the H-bridge high
      digitalWrite(motor2Pin, LOW);   // set leg 2 of the H-bridge low
    }
  }

Code snippet #3

Plain text
/*
 * created by Md. Khairul Alam
 * Control 2 DC motors with arduino
 * 2015
 */
int motor1Pin1 = 3; // pin 2 on L293D IC
int motor1Pin2 = 4; // pin 7 on L293D IC
int motor1EnablePin = 6; // pin 1 on L293D IC
int motor2Pin1 = 8; // pin 10 on L293D IC
int motor2Pin2 = 9; // pin 15 on L293D IC
int motor2EnablePin = 11; // pin 9 on L293D IC

int Speed = 100; 

void setup() {
    // sets the pins as outputs:
    pinMode(motor1Pin1, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(motor1Pin2, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(motor1EnablePin, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(motor2Pin1, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(motor2Pin2, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(motor2EnablePin, OUTPUT);
    // sets enable1Pin and enable2Pin high so that motor can turn on:
    //digitalWrite(Motor1EnablePin, HIGH);
    //digitalWrite(Motor2EnablePin, HIGH);
    // initialize serial communication at 9600 bits per second:
    Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
    //write your code here
}

void forword(){ // run two motor in forward direction
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin1, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin2, LOW); 
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin2, HIGH);
    analogWrite(motor1EnablePin, Speed);
    analogWrite(motor2EnablePin, Speed);
    //Serial.println("Go Forward!");
}

void backword(){ // run two motor in reverse direction
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin2, HIGH); 
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin1, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin2, LOW);
    analogWrite(motor1EnablePin, Speed);
    analogWrite(motor2EnablePin, Speed);
    //Serial.println("Go Reverse!");

}

void turnRight(){ //  motor 1 off, motor 2 forward
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin2, LOW); 
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin2, HIGH);
    analogWrite(motor1EnablePin, Speed);
    analogWrite(motor2EnablePin, Speed);
    //Serial.println("Turn Right");

}

void turnLeft(){ // motor 2 off, motor 1 forward
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin1, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin2, LOW); 
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin2, LOW);
    analogWrite(motor1EnablePin, Speed);
    analogWrite(motor2EnablePin, Speed);
    //Serial.println("Turn Left");

}

void Stop(){ two motor off
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor1Pin2, LOW); 
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(motor2Pin2, LOW);
    analogWrite(motor1EnablePin, Speed);
    analogWrite(motor2EnablePin, Speed);
    //Serial.println("Stop");

}

Code snippet #4

Plain text
// For calibrating you may use the following code snipet
#include <Servo.h>
#define MAX_SIGNAL 2000
#define MIN_SIGNAL 700
#define MOTOR_PIN 9

Servo motor;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("Program begin...");
  Serial.println("This program will calibrate the ESC.");

  motor.attach(MOTOR_PIN);

  Serial.println("Now writing maximum output.");
  Serial.println("Turn on power source, then wait 2 seconds and press any key.");
  motor.writeMicroseconds(MAX_SIGNAL);

  // Wait for input
  while (!Serial.available());
  Serial.read();

  // Send min output
  Serial.println("Sending minimum output");
  motor.writeMicroseconds(MIN_SIGNAL);

}

void loop() {  

}

// For controlling you may use the following code

#include <Servo.h>  // include servo library
Servo esc;
int throttlePin = 0;
 
void setup()
{
esc.attach(9);
}
 
void loop()
{
int throttle = analogRead(throttlePin); // read from pot
throttle = map(throttle, 0, 1023, 0, 179);
esc.write(throttle); // throttle value define the speed of esc
}

Code snippet #5

Plain text
#include <Servo.h>

Servo myServo;  // create servo object to control a servo
                // twelve servo objects can be created on most boards

int pos = 0;    // variable to store the servo position

void setup() {
  myServo.attach(9);  // attaches the servo on pin 9 to the servo object
}

void loop() {
  for (pos = 0; pos <= 180; pos += 1) { // goes from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
                                        // in steps of 1 degree
    myservo.write(pos);                 // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
    delay(15);                          // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
  }
  for (pos = 180; pos >= 0; pos -= 1) { // goes from 180 degrees to 0 degrees
    myservo.write(pos);                 // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
    delay(15);                          // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
  }
}

Code snippet #6

Plain text
// Global variables
int timeDelay = 3000;

void setup(){
  // declaring the four pins to be outputs
  pinMode(34, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(32, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(30, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(28, OUTPUT);
  // setting the inital state of the electromagnets
  digitalWrite(34, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(32, LOW);
  digitalWrite(30, LOW);
  digitalWrite(28, HIGH);
  delay(10); // a small time delay to allow the motor to move
}// end of setup

void loop(){
  for(int i=0; i<202; i++){ // looping through this chunk of code for ~ a full rotation
    digitalWrite(30, LOW);
    digitalWrite(34, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
    digitalWrite(28, LOW);
    digitalWrite(32, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
    digitalWrite(34, LOW);
    digitalWrite(30, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
    digitalWrite(32, LOW);
    digitalWrite(28, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
  }// end of looping
  // preparing the electromagnets to go the other direction
  digitalWrite(32, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(28, LOW);
  delayMicroseconds(timeDelay*500);
  
  
  for(int j=0; j<204; j++){ // looping through this chunk of code for ~ a full rotation in the other direction
    digitalWrite(30, LOW);
    digitalWrite(34, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
    digitalWrite(28, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(32, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
    digitalWrite(34, LOW);
    digitalWrite(30, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
    digitalWrite(32, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(28, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(timeDelay);
  }// end of looping
  // preparing the electromagnets to go the other direction
  digitalWrite(32, LOW);
  digitalWrite(28, HIGH); 
  delayMicroseconds(timeDelay*500);
  
}//end of loop

Credits

Md. Khairul Alam

Md. Khairul Alam

30 projects • 289 followers
Engineer, developer, maker, and hacker.

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