Ravee Tansangworn
Published © GPL3+

Reading RFID card or Key Ring and Display on LCD

basic setup for getting ID from RFID Card + Key Ring and display the ID to LCD with Particle Photon

BeginnerProtip1 hour2,144
Reading RFID card or Key Ring and Display on LCD

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Photon
Particle Photon
×1
Breadboard (generic)
Breadboard (generic)
×1
Resistor 10k ohm
Resistor 10k ohm
×1
Jumper wires (generic)
Jumper wires (generic)
×1
SunFounder IIC I2C TWI Serial 2004 20x4 LCD Module Shield
×1
MFRC-522 RFID Radiofrequency IC Card Sensor Reader
×1

Software apps and online services

Particle Pi
Particle Pi

Story

Read more

Schematics

rfid_bb_m1AN2v9bKs.png

img_2262_2WJ6yXsBiQ.JPG

Code

RFIDtoLCD.ino

C/C++
#include "LiquidCrystal_I2C.h"
#include "RFID.h"

#define SS_PIN      A2
#define RST_PIN     D3

int led1 = D7;

MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN);	// Create MFRC522 instance.
LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27,20,4);

void setup()
{ 
  lcd.init();
  lcd.backlight();
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockDivider(SPI_CLOCK_DIV8);
	pinMode(led1, OUTPUT);
    mfrc522.PCD_Init();
}

void loop() {
    
    digitalWrite(led1, LOW);
    // Look for new cards, if nothing found, quit
    if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) {
    	return;
    
    }
    
    // Select one of the cards, if nothing found, quit
    if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) {
    	return;
    }
    
    String cardID = "";
    
    for (byte i = 0; i < mfrc522.uid.size; i++) {
        cardID += String(mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i] < 0x10 ? "0" : "");
        cardID += String(mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i], HEX);
    }
    digitalWrite(led1, HIGH);
    lcd.print(cardID);
    mfrc522.PICC_HaltA();
    delay(10000);
    lcd.clear();
}

RFID.cpp

C/C++
/*
* MFRC522.cpp - Library to use ARDUINO RFID MODULE KIT 13.56 MHZ WITH TAGS SPI W AND R BY COOQROBOT.
* _Please_ see the comments in MFRC522.h - they give useful hints and background.
* Released into the public domain.
*/

#include <Arduino.h>
#include <RFID.h>

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions for setting up the Arduino
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Constructor.
 * Prepares the output pins.
 */
MFRC522::MFRC522(	byte chipSelectPin,		///< Arduino pin connected to MFRC522's SPI slave select input (Pin 24, NSS, active low)
					byte resetPowerDownPin	///< Arduino pin connected to MFRC522's reset and power down input (Pin 6, NRSTPD, active low)
				) {
	// Set the chipSelectPin as digital output, do not select the slave yet
	_chipSelectPin = chipSelectPin;
	pinMode(_chipSelectPin, OUTPUT);
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, LOW);
	
	// Set the resetPowerDownPin as digital output, do not reset or power down.
	_resetPowerDownPin = resetPowerDownPin;
	pinMode(_resetPowerDownPin, OUTPUT);
	digitalWrite(_resetPowerDownPin, HIGH);
	
	// Set SPI bus to work with MFRC522 chip.
	setSPIConfig();
} // End constructor

/**
 * Set SPI bus to work with MFRC522 chip.
 * Please call this function if you have changed the SPI config since the MFRC522 constructor was run.
 */
void MFRC522::setSPIConfig() {
	SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
	SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
} // End setSPIConfig()

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Basic interface functions for communicating with the MFRC522
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Writes a byte to the specified register in the MFRC522 chip.
 * The interface is described in the datasheet section 8.1.2.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_WriteRegister(	byte reg,		///< The register to write to. One of the PCD_Register enums.
									byte value		///< The value to write.
								) {
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, LOW);		// Select slave
	SPI.transfer(reg & 0x7E);					// MSB == 0 is for writing. LSB is not used in address. Datasheet section 8.1.2.3.
	SPI.transfer(value);
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, HIGH);		// Release slave again
} // End PCD_WriteRegister()

/**
 * Writes a number of bytes to the specified register in the MFRC522 chip.
 * The interface is described in the datasheet section 8.1.2.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_WriteRegister(	byte reg,		///< The register to write to. One of the PCD_Register enums.
									byte count,		///< The number of bytes to write to the register
									byte *values	///< The values to write. Byte array.
								) {
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, LOW);		// Select slave
	SPI.transfer(reg & 0x7E);				// MSB == 0 is for writing. LSB is not used in address. Datasheet section 8.1.2.3.
	for (byte index = 0; index < count; index++) {
		SPI.transfer(values[index]);
	}
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, HIGH);		// Release slave again
} // End PCD_WriteRegister()

/**
 * Reads a byte from the specified register in the MFRC522 chip.
 * The interface is described in the datasheet section 8.1.2.
 */
byte MFRC522::PCD_ReadRegister(	byte reg	///< The register to read from. One of the PCD_Register enums.
								) {
	byte value;
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, LOW);			// Select slave
	SPI.transfer(0x80 | (reg & 0x7E));			// MSB == 1 is for reading. LSB is not used in address. Datasheet section 8.1.2.3.
	value = SPI.transfer(0);					// Read the value back. Send 0 to stop reading.
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, HIGH);			// Release slave again
	return value;
} // End PCD_ReadRegister()

/**
 * Reads a number of bytes from the specified register in the MFRC522 chip.
 * The interface is described in the datasheet section 8.1.2.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_ReadRegister(	byte reg,		///< The register to read from. One of the PCD_Register enums.
								byte count,		///< The number of bytes to read
								byte *values,	///< Byte array to store the values in.
								byte rxAlign	///< Only bit positions rxAlign..7 in values[0] are updated.
								) {
	if (count == 0) {
		return;
	}
	//Serial.print("Reading "); 	Serial.print(count); Serial.println(" bytes from register.");
	byte address = 0x80 | (reg & 0x7E);		// MSB == 1 is for reading. LSB is not used in address. Datasheet section 8.1.2.3.
	byte index = 0;							// Index in values array.
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, LOW);		// Select slave
	count--;								// One read is performed outside of the loop
	SPI.transfer(address);					// Tell MFRC522 which address we want to read
	while (index < count) {
		if (index == 0 && rxAlign) { // Only update bit positions rxAlign..7 in values[0]
			// Create bit mask for bit positions rxAlign..7
			byte mask = 0;
			for (byte i = rxAlign; i <= 7; i++) {
				mask |= (1 << i);
			}
			// Read value and tell that we want to read the same address again.
			byte value = SPI.transfer(address);	
			// Apply mask to both current value of values[0] and the new data in value.
			values[0] = (values[index] & ~mask) | (value & mask);
		}
		else { // Normal case
			values[index] = SPI.transfer(address);	// Read value and tell that we want to read the same address again.
		}
		index++;
	}
	values[index] = SPI.transfer(0);			// Read the final byte. Send 0 to stop reading.
	digitalWrite(_chipSelectPin, HIGH);			// Release slave again
} // End PCD_ReadRegister()

/**
 * Sets the bits given in mask in register reg.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_SetRegisterBitMask(	byte reg,	///< The register to update. One of the PCD_Register enums.
										byte mask	///< The bits to set.
									) { 
	byte tmp;
	tmp = PCD_ReadRegister(reg);
	PCD_WriteRegister(reg, tmp | mask);			// set bit mask
} // End PCD_SetRegisterBitMask()

/**
 * Clears the bits given in mask from register reg.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_ClearRegisterBitMask(	byte reg,	///< The register to update. One of the PCD_Register enums.
										byte mask	///< The bits to clear.
									  ) {
	byte tmp;
	tmp = PCD_ReadRegister(reg);
	PCD_WriteRegister(reg, tmp & (~mask));		// clear bit mask
} // End PCD_ClearRegisterBitMask()


/**
 * Use the CRC coprocessor in the MFRC522 to calculate a CRC_A.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PCD_CalculateCRC(	byte *data,		///< In: Pointer to the data to transfer to the FIFO for CRC calculation.
								byte length,	///< In: The number of bytes to transfer.
								byte *result	///< Out: Pointer to result buffer. Result is written to result[0..1], low byte first.
					 ) {
	PCD_WriteRegister(CommandReg, PCD_Idle);			// Stop any active command.
	PCD_WriteRegister(DivIrqReg, 0x04);					// Clear the CRCIRq interrupt request bit
	PCD_SetRegisterBitMask(FIFOLevelReg, 0x80);		// FlushBuffer = 1, FIFO initialization
	PCD_WriteRegister(FIFODataReg, length, data);		// Write data to the FIFO
	PCD_WriteRegister(CommandReg, PCD_CalcCRC);		// Start the calculation
	
	// Wait for the CRC calculation to complete. Each iteration of the while-loop takes 17.73µs.
	word i = 5000;
	byte n;
	while (1) {
		n = PCD_ReadRegister(DivIrqReg);	// DivIrqReg[7..0] bits are: Set2 reserved reserved MfinActIRq   reserved CRCIRq reserved reserved
		if (n & 0x04) {						// CRCIRq bit set - calculation done
			break;
		}
		if (--i == 0) {						// The emergency break. We will eventually terminate on this one after 89ms. Communication with the MFRC522 might be down.
			return STATUS_TIMEOUT;
		}
	}
	PCD_WriteRegister(CommandReg, PCD_Idle);			// Stop calculating CRC for new content in the FIFO.
	
	// Transfer the result from the registers to the result buffer
	result[0] = PCD_ReadRegister(CRCResultRegL);
	result[1] = PCD_ReadRegister(CRCResultRegH);
	return STATUS_OK;
} // End PCD_CalculateCRC()


/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions for manipulating the MFRC522
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Initializes the MFRC522 chip.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_Init() {
	if (digitalRead(_resetPowerDownPin) == LOW) { //The MFRC522 chip is in power down mode.
		digitalWrite(_resetPowerDownPin, HIGH);	// Exit power down mode. This triggers a hard reset.
		// Section 8.8.2 in the datasheet says the oscillator start-up time is the start up time of the crystal + 37,74µs. Let us be generous: 50ms.
		delay(50);
	}
	else { // Perform a soft reset
		PCD_Reset();
	}
	
	// When communicating with a PICC we need a timeout if something goes wrong.
	// f_timer = 13.56 MHz / (2*TPreScaler+1) where TPreScaler = [TPrescaler_Hi:TPrescaler_Lo].
	// TPrescaler_Hi are the four low bits in TModeReg. TPrescaler_Lo is TPrescalerReg.
    PCD_WriteRegister(TModeReg, 0x80);			// TAuto=1; timer starts automatically at the end of the transmission in all communication modes at all speeds
    PCD_WriteRegister(TPrescalerReg, 0xA9);	// TPreScaler = TModeReg[3..0]:TPrescalerReg, ie 0x0A9 = 169 => f_timer=40kHz, ie a timer period of 25µs.
    PCD_WriteRegister(TReloadRegH, 0x03);		// Reload timer with 0x3E8 = 1000, ie 25ms before timeout.
    PCD_WriteRegister(TReloadRegL, 0xE8);
	
	PCD_WriteRegister(TxASKReg, 0x40);		// Default 0x00. Force a 100 % ASK modulation independent of the ModGsPReg register setting
	PCD_WriteRegister(ModeReg, 0x3D);		// Default 0x3F. Set the preset value for the CRC coprocessor for the CalcCRC command to 0x6363 (ISO 14443-3 part 6.2.4)
	PCD_AntennaOn();						// Enable the antenna driver pins TX1 and TX2 (they were disabled by the reset)
} // End PCD_Init()

/**
 * Performs a soft reset on the MFRC522 chip and waits for it to be ready again.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_Reset() {
	PCD_WriteRegister(CommandReg, PCD_SoftReset);	// Issue the SoftReset command.
	// The datasheet does not mention how long the SoftRest command takes to complete.
	// But the MFRC522 might have been in soft power-down mode (triggered by bit 4 of CommandReg) 
	// Section 8.8.2 in the datasheet says the oscillator start-up time is the start up time of the crystal + 37,74µs. Let us be generous: 50ms.
	delay(50);
	// Wait for the PowerDown bit in CommandReg to be cleared
	while (PCD_ReadRegister(CommandReg) & (1<<4)) {
		// PCD still restarting - unlikely after waiting 50ms, but better safe than sorry.
	}
} // End PCD_Reset()

/**
 * Turns the antenna on by enabling pins TX1 and TX2.
 * After a reset these pins disabled.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_AntennaOn() {
	byte value = PCD_ReadRegister(TxControlReg);
	if ((value & 0x03) != 0x03) {
		PCD_WriteRegister(TxControlReg, value | 0x03);
	}
} // End PCD_AntennaOn()

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions for communicating with PICCs
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Executes the Transceive command.
 * CRC validation can only be done if backData and backLen are specified.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PCD_TransceiveData(	byte *sendData,		///< Pointer to the data to transfer to the FIFO.
									byte sendLen,		///< Number of bytes to transfer to the FIFO.
									byte *backData,		///< NULL or pointer to buffer if data should be read back after executing the command.
									byte *backLen,		///< In: Max number of bytes to write to *backData. Out: The number of bytes returned.
									byte *validBits,	///< In/Out: The number of valid bits in the last byte. 0 for 8 valid bits. Default NULL.
									byte rxAlign,		///< In: Defines the bit position in backData[0] for the first bit received. Default 0.
									bool checkCRC		///< In: True => The last two bytes of the response is assumed to be a CRC_A that must be validated.
								 ) {
	byte waitIRq = 0x30;		// RxIRq and IdleIRq
	return PCD_CommunicateWithPICC(PCD_Transceive, waitIRq, sendData, sendLen, backData, backLen, validBits, rxAlign, checkCRC);
} // End PCD_TransceiveData()

/**
 * Transfers data to the MFRC522 FIFO, executes a commend, waits for completion and transfers data back from the FIFO.
 * CRC validation can only be done if backData and backLen are specified.
 *
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PCD_CommunicateWithPICC(	byte command,		///< The command to execute. One of the PCD_Command enums.
										byte waitIRq,		///< The bits in the ComIrqReg register that signals successful completion of the command.
										byte *sendData,		///< Pointer to the data to transfer to the FIFO.
										byte sendLen,		///< Number of bytes to transfer to the FIFO.
										byte *backData,		///< NULL or pointer to buffer if data should be read back after executing the command.
										byte *backLen,		///< In: Max number of bytes to write to *backData. Out: The number of bytes returned.
										byte *validBits,	///< In/Out: The number of valid bits in the last byte. 0 for 8 valid bits.
										byte rxAlign,		///< In: Defines the bit position in backData[0] for the first bit received. Default 0.
										bool checkCRC		///< In: True => The last two bytes of the response is assumed to be a CRC_A that must be validated.
									 ) {
	byte n, _validBits;
	unsigned int i;

	// Prepare values for BitFramingReg
	byte txLastBits = validBits ? *validBits : 0;
	byte bitFraming	= (rxAlign << 4) + txLastBits;		// RxAlign = BitFramingReg[6..4]. TxLastBits = BitFramingReg[2..0]
	
	PCD_WriteRegister(CommandReg, PCD_Idle);			// Stop any active command.
	PCD_WriteRegister(ComIrqReg, 0x7F);					// Clear all seven interrupt request bits
	PCD_SetRegisterBitMask(FIFOLevelReg, 0x80);		// FlushBuffer = 1, FIFO initialization
	PCD_WriteRegister(FIFODataReg, sendLen, sendData);	// Write sendData to the FIFO
	PCD_WriteRegister(BitFramingReg, bitFraming);		// Bit adjustments
	PCD_WriteRegister(CommandReg, command);			// Execute the command
	if (command == PCD_Transceive) 	{
		PCD_SetRegisterBitMask(BitFramingReg, 0x80);	// StartSend=1, transmission of data starts
	}
	
	// Wait for the command to complete.
	// In PCD_Init() we set the TAuto flag in TModeReg. This means the timer automatically starts when the PCD stops transmitting.
	// Each iteration of the do-while-loop takes 17.86µs.
	i = 2000;
	while (1) {
		n = PCD_ReadRegister(ComIrqReg);	// ComIrqReg[7..0] bits are: Set1 TxIRq RxIRq IdleIRq   HiAlertIRq LoAlertIRq ErrIRq TimerIRq
		if (n & waitIRq) {					// One of the interrupts that signal success has been set.
			break;
		}
		if (n & 0x01) {						// Timer interrupt - nothing received in 25ms
			return STATUS_TIMEOUT;
		}
		if (--i == 0) {						// The emergency break. If all other condions fail we will eventually terminate on this one after 35.7ms. Communication with the MFRC522 might be down.
			return STATUS_TIMEOUT;
		}
	}
	
	// Stop now if any errors except collisions were detected.
	byte errorRegValue = PCD_ReadRegister(ErrorReg); // ErrorReg[7..0] bits are: WrErr TempErr reserved BufferOvfl   CollErr CRCErr ParityErr ProtocolErr
	if (errorRegValue & 0x13) {	 // BufferOvfl ParityErr ProtocolErr
		return STATUS_ERROR;
	}	

	// If the caller wants data back, get it from the MFRC522.
	if (backData && backLen) {
		n = PCD_ReadRegister(FIFOLevelReg);						// Number of bytes in the FIFO
		if (n > *backLen) {
			return STATUS_NO_ROOM;
		}
		*backLen = n;												// Number of bytes returned
		PCD_ReadRegister(FIFODataReg, n, backData, rxAlign);		// Get received data from FIFO
		_validBits = PCD_ReadRegister(ControlReg) & 0x07;	// RxLastBits[2:0] indicates the number of valid bits in the last received byte. If this value is 000b, the whole byte is valid.
		if (validBits) {
			*validBits = _validBits;
		}
	}
	
	// Tell about collisions
	if (errorRegValue & 0x08) { // CollErr
		return STATUS_COLLISION;
	}
	
	// Perform CRC_A validation if requested.
	if (backData && backLen && checkCRC) {
		// In this case a MIFARE Classic NAK is not OK.
		if (*backLen == 1 && _validBits == 4) {
			return STATUS_MIFARE_NACK;
		}
		// We need at least the CRC_A value and all 8 bits of the last byte must be received.
		if (*backLen < 2 || _validBits != 0) {
			return STATUS_CRC_WRONG;
		}
		// Verify CRC_A - do our own calculation and store the control in controlBuffer.
		byte controlBuffer[2]; 
		n = PCD_CalculateCRC(&backData[0], *backLen - 2, &controlBuffer[0]);
		if (n != STATUS_OK) {
			return n;
		}
		if ((backData[*backLen - 2] != controlBuffer[0]) || (backData[*backLen - 1] != controlBuffer[1])) {
			return STATUS_CRC_WRONG;
		}
	}
	
	return STATUS_OK;
} // End PCD_CommunicateWithPICC()

/**
 * Transmits a REQuest command, Type A. Invites PICCs in state IDLE to go to READY and prepare for anticollision or selection. 7 bit frame.
 * Beware: When two PICCs are in the field at the same time I often get STATUS_TIMEOUT - probably due do bad antenna design.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PICC_RequestA(byte *bufferATQA,	///< The buffer to store the ATQA (Answer to request) in
							byte *bufferSize	///< Buffer size, at least two bytes. Also number of bytes returned if STATUS_OK.
							) {
	return PICC_REQA_or_WUPA(PICC_CMD_REQA, bufferATQA, bufferSize);
} // End PICC_RequestA()

/**
 * Transmits a Wake-UP command, Type A. Invites PICCs in state IDLE and HALT to go to READY(*) and prepare for anticollision or selection. 7 bit frame.
 * Beware: When two PICCs are in the field at the same time I often get STATUS_TIMEOUT - probably due do bad antenna design.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PICC_WakeupA(	byte *bufferATQA,	///< The buffer to store the ATQA (Answer to request) in
							byte *bufferSize	///< Buffer size, at least two bytes. Also number of bytes returned if STATUS_OK.
							) {
	return PICC_REQA_or_WUPA(PICC_CMD_WUPA, bufferATQA, bufferSize);
} // End PICC_WakeupA()

/**
 * Transmits REQA or WUPA commands.
 * Beware: When two PICCs are in the field at the same time I often get STATUS_TIMEOUT - probably due do bad antenna design.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */ 
byte MFRC522::PICC_REQA_or_WUPA(	byte command, 		///< The command to send - PICC_CMD_REQA or PICC_CMD_WUPA
									byte *bufferATQA,	///< The buffer to store the ATQA (Answer to request) in
									byte *bufferSize	///< Buffer size, at least two bytes. Also number of bytes returned if STATUS_OK.
							   ) {
	byte validBits;
	byte status;
	
	if (bufferATQA == NULL || *bufferSize < 2) {	// The ATQA response is 2 bytes long.
		return STATUS_NO_ROOM;
	}
	PCD_ClearRegisterBitMask(CollReg, 0x80);			// ValuesAfterColl=1 => Bits received after collision are cleared.
	validBits = 7;										// For REQA and WUPA we need the short frame format - transmit only 7 bits of the last (and only) byte. TxLastBits = BitFramingReg[2..0]
	status = PCD_TransceiveData(&command, 1, bufferATQA, bufferSize, &validBits);
	if (status != STATUS_OK) {
		return status;
	}
	if (*bufferSize != 2 || validBits != 0) {		// ATQA must be exactly 16 bits.
		return STATUS_ERROR;
	}
	return STATUS_OK;
} // End PICC_REQA_or_WUPA()

/**
 * Transmits SELECT/ANTICOLLISION commands to select a single PICC.
 * Before calling this function the PICCs must be placed in the READY(*) state by calling PICC_RequestA() or PICC_WakeupA().
 * On success:
 * 		- The chosen PICC is in state ACTIVE(*) and all other PICCs have returned to state IDLE/HALT. (Figure 7 of the ISO/IEC 14443-3 draft.)
 * 		- The UID size and value of the chosen PICC is returned in *uid along with the SAK.
 * 
 * A PICC UID consists of 4, 7 or 10 bytes.
 * Only 4 bytes can be specified in a SELECT command, so for the longer UIDs two or three iterations are used:
 * 		UID size	Number of UID bytes		Cascade levels		Example of PICC
 * 		========	===================		==============		===============
 * 		single				 4						1				MIFARE Classic
 * 		double				 7						2				MIFARE Ultralight
 * 		triple				10						3				Not currently in use?
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PICC_Select(	Uid *uid,			///< Pointer to Uid struct. Normally output, but can also be used to supply a known UID.
							byte validBits		///< The number of known UID bits supplied in *uid. Normally 0. If set you must also supply uid->size.
						 ) {
	bool uidComplete;
	bool selectDone;
	bool useCascadeTag;
	byte cascadeLevel	= 1; 
	byte result;
	byte count;
	byte index;
	byte uidIndex;					// The first index in uid->uidByte[] that is used in the current Cascade Level.
	char currentLevelKnownBits;		// The number of known UID bits in the current Cascade Level.
	byte buffer[9];					// The SELECT/ANTICOLLISION commands uses a 7 byte standard frame + 2 bytes CRC_A
	byte bufferUsed;				// The number of bytes used in the buffer, ie the number of bytes to transfer to the FIFO.
	byte rxAlign;					// Used in BitFramingReg. Defines the bit position for the first bit received.
	byte txLastBits;				// Used in BitFramingReg. The number of valid bits in the last transmitted byte. 
	byte *responseBuffer;
	byte responseLength;
	
	// Description of buffer structure:
	// 		Byte 0: SEL 				Indicates the Cascade Level: PICC_CMD_SEL_CL1, PICC_CMD_SEL_CL2 or PICC_CMD_SEL_CL3
	// 		Byte 1: NVB					Number of Valid Bits (in complete command, not just the UID): High nibble: complete bytes, Low nibble: Extra bits. 
	// 		Byte 2: UID-data or CT		See explanation below. CT means Cascade Tag.
	// 		Byte 3: UID-data
	// 		Byte 4: UID-data
	// 		Byte 5: UID-data
	// 		Byte 6: BCC					Block Check Character - XOR of bytes 2-5
	//		Byte 7: CRC_A
	//		Byte 8: CRC_A
	// The BCC and CRC_A is only transmitted if we know all the UID bits of the current Cascade Level.
	//
	// Description of bytes 2-5: (Section 6.5.4 of the ISO/IEC 14443-3 draft: UID contents and cascade levels)
	//		UID size	Cascade level	Byte2	Byte3	Byte4	Byte5
	//		========	=============	=====	=====	=====	=====
	//		 4 bytes		1			uid0	uid1	uid2	uid3
	//		 7 bytes		1			CT		uid0	uid1	uid2
	//						2			uid3	uid4	uid5	uid6
	//		10 bytes		1			CT		uid0	uid1	uid2
	//						2			CT		uid3	uid4	uid5
	//						3			uid6	uid7	uid8	uid9
	
	// Sanity checks
	if (validBits > 80) {
		return STATUS_INVALID;
	}

	// Prepare MFRC522
	PCD_ClearRegisterBitMask(CollReg, 0x80);			// ValuesAfterColl=1 => Bits received after collision are cleared.

	// Repeat Cascade Level loop until we have a complete UID.
	uidComplete = false;
	while ( ! uidComplete) {
		// Set the Cascade Level in the SEL byte, find out if we need to use the Cascade Tag in byte 2.
		switch (cascadeLevel) {
			case 1:
				buffer[0] = PICC_CMD_SEL_CL1;
				uidIndex = 0;
				useCascadeTag = validBits && uid->size > 4;	// When we know that the UID has more than 4 bytes
				break;
			
			case 2:
				buffer[0] = PICC_CMD_SEL_CL2;
				uidIndex = 3;
				useCascadeTag = validBits && uid->size > 7;	// When we know that the UID has more than 7 bytes
				break;
			
			case 3:
				buffer[0] = PICC_CMD_SEL_CL3;
				uidIndex = 6;
				useCascadeTag = false;						// Never used in CL3.
				break;
			
			default:
				return STATUS_INTERNAL_ERROR;
				break;
		}
		
		// How many UID bits are known in this Cascade Level?
		currentLevelKnownBits = validBits - (8 * uidIndex);
		if (currentLevelKnownBits < 0) {
			currentLevelKnownBits = 0;
		}
		// Copy the known bits from uid->uidByte[] to buffer[]
		index = 2; // destination index in buffer[]
		if (useCascadeTag) {
			buffer[index++] = PICC_CMD_CT;
		}
		byte bytesToCopy = currentLevelKnownBits / 8 + (currentLevelKnownBits % 8 ? 1 : 0); // The number of bytes needed to represent the known bits for this level.
		if (bytesToCopy) {
			byte maxBytes = useCascadeTag ? 3 : 4; // Max 4 bytes in each Cascade Level. Only 3 left if we use the Cascade Tag
			if (bytesToCopy > maxBytes) { 
				bytesToCopy = maxBytes;
			}
			for (count = 0; count < bytesToCopy; count++) {
				buffer[index++] = uid->uidByte[uidIndex + count];
			}
		}
		// Now that the data has been copied we need to include the 8 bits in CT in currentLevelKnownBits
		if (useCascadeTag) {
			currentLevelKnownBits += 8;
		}
		
		// Repeat anti collision loop until we can transmit all UID bits + BCC and receive a SAK - max 32 iterations.
		selectDone = false;
		while ( ! selectDone) {
			// Find out how many bits and bytes to send and receive.
			if (currentLevelKnownBits >= 32) { // All UID bits in this Cascade Level are known. This is a SELECT.
				//Serial.print("SELECT: currentLevelKnownBits="); Serial.println(currentLevelKnownBits, DEC);
				buffer[1] = 0x70; // NVB - Number of Valid Bits: Seven whole bytes
				// Calulate BCC - Block Check Character
				buffer[6] = buffer[2] ^ buffer[3] ^ buffer[4] ^ buffer[5];
				// Calculate CRC_A
				result = PCD_CalculateCRC(buffer, 7, &buffer[7]);
				if (result != STATUS_OK) {
					return result;
				}
				txLastBits		= 0; // 0 => All 8 bits are valid.
				bufferUsed		= 9;
				// Store response in the last 3 bytes of buffer (BCC and CRC_A - not needed after tx)
				responseBuffer	= &buffer[6];
				responseLength	= 3;
			}
			else { // This is an ANTICOLLISION.
				//Serial.print("ANTICOLLISION: currentLevelKnownBits="); Serial.println(currentLevelKnownBits, DEC);
				txLastBits		= currentLevelKnownBits % 8;
				count			= currentLevelKnownBits / 8;	// Number of whole bytes in the UID part.
				index			= 2 + count;					// Number of whole bytes: SEL + NVB + UIDs
				buffer[1]		= (index << 4) + txLastBits;	// NVB - Number of Valid Bits
				bufferUsed		= index + (txLastBits ? 1 : 0);
				// Store response in the unused part of buffer
				responseBuffer	= &buffer[index];
				responseLength	= sizeof(buffer) - index;
			}

			// Set bit adjustments
			rxAlign = txLastBits;											// Having a seperate variable is overkill. But it makes the next line easier to read.
			PCD_WriteRegister(BitFramingReg, (rxAlign << 4) + txLastBits);	// RxAlign = BitFramingReg[6..4]. TxLastBits = BitFramingReg[2..0]

			// Transmit the buffer and receive the response.
			result = PCD_TransceiveData(buffer, bufferUsed, responseBuffer, &responseLength, &txLastBits, rxAlign);			
			if (result == STATUS_COLLISION) { // More than one PICC in the field => collision.
				result = PCD_ReadRegister(CollReg); // CollReg[7..0] bits are: ValuesAfterColl reserved CollPosNotValid CollPos[4:0]
				if (result & 0x20) { // CollPosNotValid
					return STATUS_COLLISION; // Without a valid collision position we cannot continue
				}
				byte collisionPos = result & 0x1F; // Values 0-31, 0 means bit 32.
				if (collisionPos == 0) {
					collisionPos = 32;
				}
				if (collisionPos <= currentLevelKnownBits) { // No progress - should not happen 
					return STATUS_INTERNAL_ERROR;
				}
				// Choose the PICC with the bit set.
				currentLevelKnownBits = collisionPos;
				count			= (currentLevelKnownBits - 1) % 8; // The bit to modify
				index			= 1 + (currentLevelKnownBits / 8) + (count ? 1 : 0); // First byte is index 0.
				buffer[index]	|= (1 << count); 
			}
			else if (result != STATUS_OK) {
				return result;
			}
			else { // STATUS_OK
				if (currentLevelKnownBits >= 32) { // This was a SELECT.
					selectDone = true; // No more anticollision 
					// We continue below outside the while.
				}
				else { // This was an ANTICOLLISION.
					// We now have all 32 bits of the UID in this Cascade Level
					currentLevelKnownBits = 32;
					// Run loop again to do the SELECT.
				}
			}
		} // End of while ( ! selectDone)

		// We do not check the CBB - it was constructed by us above.
		
		// Copy the found UID bytes from buffer[] to uid->uidByte[]
		index			= (buffer[2] == PICC_CMD_CT) ? 3 : 2; // source index in buffer[]
		bytesToCopy		= (buffer[2] == PICC_CMD_CT) ? 3 : 4;
		for (count = 0; count < bytesToCopy; count++) {
			uid->uidByte[uidIndex + count] = buffer[index++];
		}
		
		// Check response SAK (Select Acknowledge)
		if (responseLength != 3 || txLastBits != 0) {		// SAK must be exactly 24 bits (1 byte + CRC_A).
			return STATUS_ERROR;
		}
		// Verify CRC_A - do our own calculation and store the control in buffer[2..3] - those bytes are not needed anymore.
		result = PCD_CalculateCRC(responseBuffer, 1, &buffer[2]);
		if (result != STATUS_OK) {
			return result;
		}
		if ((buffer[2] != responseBuffer[1]) || (buffer[3] != responseBuffer[2])) {
			return STATUS_CRC_WRONG;
		}
		if (responseBuffer[0] & 0x04) { // Cascade bit set - UID not complete yes
			cascadeLevel++;
		}
		else {
			uidComplete = true;
			uid->sak = responseBuffer[0];
		}
	} // End of while ( ! uidComplete)
	
	// Set correct uid->size
	uid->size = 3 * cascadeLevel + 1;

	return STATUS_OK;
} // End PICC_Select()

/**
 * Instructs a PICC in state ACTIVE(*) to go to state HALT.
 *
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */ 
byte MFRC522::PICC_HaltA() {
	byte result;
	byte buffer[4]; 

	// Build command buffer
	buffer[0] = PICC_CMD_HLTA;
	buffer[1] = 0;
	// Calculate CRC_A
	result = PCD_CalculateCRC(buffer, 2, &buffer[2]);
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}

	// Send the command.
	// The standard says:
	//		If the PICC responds with any modulation during a period of 1 ms after the end of the frame containing the
	//		HLTA command, this response shall be interpreted as 'not acknowledge'.
	// We interpret that this way: Only STATUS_TIMEOUT is an success.
	result = PCD_TransceiveData(buffer, sizeof(buffer), NULL, 0);
	if (result == STATUS_TIMEOUT) {
		return STATUS_OK;
	}
	if (result == STATUS_OK) { // That is ironically NOT ok in this case ;-)
		return STATUS_ERROR;
	}
	return result;
} // End PICC_HaltA()


/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions for communicating with MIFARE PICCs
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Executes the MFRC522 MFAuthent command.
 * This command manages MIFARE authentication to enable a secure communication to any MIFARE Mini, MIFARE 1K and MIFARE 4K card.
 * The authentication is described in the MFRC522 datasheet section 10.3.1.9 and http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf section 10.1.
 * For use with MIFARE Classic PICCs.
 * The PICC must be selected - ie in state ACTIVE(*) - before calling this function.
 * Remember to call PCD_StopCrypto1() after communicating with the authenticated PICC - otherwise no new communications can start.
 * 
 * All keys are set to FFFFFFFFFFFFh at chip delivery. A key consists of 6 bytes.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise. Probably STATUS_TIMEOUT if you supply the wrong key.
 */
byte MFRC522::PCD_Authenticate(byte command,		///< PICC_CMD_MF_AUTH_KEY_A or PICC_CMD_MF_AUTH_KEY_B
								byte blockAddr, 	///< The block number. See numbering in the comments in the .h file.
								MIFARE_Key *key,	///< Pointer to the Crypteo1 key to use (6 bytes)
								Uid *uid			///< Pointer to Uid struct. The first 4 bytes of the UID is used.
								) {
	byte waitIRq = 0x10;		// IdleIRq
	
	// Build command buffer
	byte sendData[12];
	sendData[0] = command;
	sendData[1] = blockAddr;
	for (byte i = 0; i < MF_KEY_SIZE; i++) {	// 6 key bytes
		sendData[2+i] = key->keyByte[i];
	}
	for (byte i = 0; i < 4; i++) {				// The first 4 bytes of the UID
		sendData[8+i] = uid->uidByte[i];
	}
	
	// Start the authentication.
	return PCD_CommunicateWithPICC(PCD_MFAuthent, waitIRq, &sendData[0], sizeof(sendData));
} // End PCD_Authenticate()

/**
 * Used to exit the PCD from its authenticated state.
 * Remember to call this function after communicating with an authenticated PICC - otherwise no new communications can start.
 */
void MFRC522::PCD_StopCrypto1() {
	// Clear MFCrypto1On bit
	PCD_ClearRegisterBitMask(Status2Reg, 0x08); // Status2Reg[7..0] bits are: TempSensClear I2CForceHS reserved reserved   MFCrypto1On ModemState[2:0]
} // End PCD_StopCrypto1()

/**
 * Reads 16 bytes (+ 2 bytes CRC_A) from the active PICC.
 * 
 * For MIFARE Classic the sector containing the block must be authenticated before calling this function.
 * 
 * For MIFARE Ultralight only addresses 00h to 0Fh are decoded.
 * The MF0ICU1 returns a NAK for higher addresses.
 * The MF0ICU1 responds to the READ command by sending 16 bytes starting from the page address defined by the command argument.
 * For example; if blockAddr is 03h then pages 03h, 04h, 05h, 06h are returned.
 * A roll-back is implemented: If blockAddr is 0Eh, then the contents of pages 0Eh, 0Fh, 00h and 01h are returned.
 * 
 * The buffer must be at least 18 bytes because a CRC_A is also returned.
 * Checks the CRC_A before returning STATUS_OK.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Read(	byte blockAddr, 	///< MIFARE Classic: The block (0-0xff) number. MIFARE Ultralight: The first page to return data from.
							byte *buffer,		///< The buffer to store the data in
							byte *bufferSize	///< Buffer size, at least 18 bytes. Also number of bytes returned if STATUS_OK.
						) {
	byte result;
	
	// Sanity check
	if (buffer == NULL || *bufferSize < 18) {
		return STATUS_NO_ROOM;
	}

	// Build command buffer
	buffer[0] = PICC_CMD_MF_READ;
	buffer[1] = blockAddr;
	// Calculate CRC_A
	result = PCD_CalculateCRC(buffer, 2, &buffer[2]);
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}
	
	// Transmit the buffer and receive the response, validate CRC_A.
	return PCD_TransceiveData(buffer, 4, buffer, bufferSize, NULL, 0, true);
} // End MIFARE_Read()

/**
 * Writes 16 bytes to the active PICC.
 * 
 * For MIFARE Classic the sector containing the block must be authenticated before calling this function.
 * 
 * For MIFARE Ultralight the opretaion is called "COMPATIBILITY WRITE".
 * Even though 16 bytes are transferred to the Ultralight PICC, only the least significant 4 bytes (bytes 0 to 3)
 * are written to the specified address. It is recommended to set the remaining bytes 04h to 0Fh to all logic 0.
 * * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Write(	byte blockAddr, ///< MIFARE Classic: The block (0-0xff) number. MIFARE Ultralight: The page (2-15) to write to.
							byte *buffer,	///< The 16 bytes to write to the PICC
							byte bufferSize	///< Buffer size, must be at least 16 bytes. Exactly 16 bytes are written.
						) {
	byte result;

	// Sanity check
	if (buffer == NULL || bufferSize < 16) {
		return STATUS_INVALID;
	}

	// Mifare Classic protocol requires two communications to perform a write.
	// Step 1: Tell the PICC we want to write to block blockAddr.
	byte cmdBuffer[2];
	cmdBuffer[0] = PICC_CMD_MF_WRITE;
	cmdBuffer[1] = blockAddr;
	result = PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(cmdBuffer, 2); // Adds CRC_A and checks that the response is MF_ACK.
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}

	// Step 2: Transfer the data
	result = PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(	buffer, bufferSize); // Adds CRC_A and checks that the response is MF_ACK.
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}

	return STATUS_OK;
} // End MIFARE_Write()

/**
 * Writes a 4 byte page to the active MIFARE Ultralight PICC.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Ultralight_Write(	byte page, 		///< The page (2-15) to write to.
										byte *buffer,	///< The 4 bytes to write to the PICC
										byte bufferSize	///< Buffer size, must be at least 4 bytes. Exactly 4 bytes are written.
									) {
	byte result;

	// Sanity check
	if (buffer == NULL || bufferSize < 4) {
		return STATUS_INVALID;
	}

	// Build commmand buffer
	byte cmdBuffer[6];
	cmdBuffer[0] = PICC_CMD_UL_WRITE;
	cmdBuffer[1] = page;
	memcpy(&cmdBuffer[2], buffer, 4);
	
	// Perform the write
	result = PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(cmdBuffer, 6); // Adds CRC_A and checks that the response is MF_ACK.
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}
	return STATUS_OK;
} // End MIFARE_Ultralight_Write()

/**
 * MIFARE Decrement subtracts the delta from the value of the addressed block, and stores the result in a volatile memory.
 * For MIFARE Classic only. The sector containing the block must be authenticated before calling this function.
 * Only for blocks in "value block" mode, ie with access bits [C1 C2 C3] = [110] or [001].
 * Use MIFARE_Transfer() to store the result in a block.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Decrement(	byte blockAddr, ///< The block (0-0xff) number.
								long delta		///< This number is subtracted from the value of block blockAddr.
							) {
	return MIFARE_TwoStepHelper(PICC_CMD_MF_DECREMENT, blockAddr, delta);
} // End MIFARE_Decrement()

/**
 * MIFARE Increment adds the delta to the value of the addressed block, and stores the result in a volatile memory.
 * For MIFARE Classic only. The sector containing the block must be authenticated before calling this function.
 * Only for blocks in "value block" mode, ie with access bits [C1 C2 C3] = [110] or [001].
 * Use MIFARE_Transfer() to store the result in a block.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Increment(	byte blockAddr, ///< The block (0-0xff) number.
								long delta		///< This number is added to the value of block blockAddr.
							) {
	return MIFARE_TwoStepHelper(PICC_CMD_MF_INCREMENT, blockAddr, delta);
} // End MIFARE_Increment()

/**
 * MIFARE Restore copies the value of the addressed block into a volatile memory.
 * For MIFARE Classic only. The sector containing the block must be authenticated before calling this function.
 * Only for blocks in "value block" mode, ie with access bits [C1 C2 C3] = [110] or [001].
 * Use MIFARE_Transfer() to store the result in a block.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Restore(	byte blockAddr ///< The block (0-0xff) number.
							) {
	// The datasheet describes Restore as a two step operation, but does not explain what data to transfer in step 2.
	// Doing only a single step does not work, so I chose to transfer 0L in step two.
	return MIFARE_TwoStepHelper(PICC_CMD_MF_RESTORE, blockAddr, 0L);
} // End MIFARE_Restore()

/**
 * Helper function for the two-step MIFARE Classic protocol operations Decrement, Increment and Restore.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_TwoStepHelper(	byte command,	///< The command to use
									byte blockAddr,	///< The block (0-0xff) number.
									long data		///< The data to transfer in step 2
									) {
	byte result;
	byte cmdBuffer[2]; // We only need room for 2 bytes.

	// Step 1: Tell the PICC the command and block address
	cmdBuffer[0] = command;
	cmdBuffer[1] = blockAddr;
	result = PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(	cmdBuffer, 2); // Adds CRC_A and checks that the response is MF_ACK.
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}

	// Step 2: Transfer the data
	result = PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(	(byte *)&data, 4, true); // Adds CRC_A and accept timeout as success.
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}

	return STATUS_OK;
} // End MIFARE_TwoStepHelper()

/**
 * MIFARE Transfer writes the value stored in the volatile memory into one MIFARE Classic block.
 * For MIFARE Classic only. The sector containing the block must be authenticated before calling this function.
 * Only for blocks in "value block" mode, ie with access bits [C1 C2 C3] = [110] or [001].
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::MIFARE_Transfer(	byte blockAddr ///< The block (0-0xff) number.
							) {
	byte result;
	byte cmdBuffer[2]; // We only need room for 2 bytes.

	// Tell the PICC we want to transfer the result into block blockAddr.
	cmdBuffer[0] = PICC_CMD_MF_TRANSFER;
	cmdBuffer[1] = blockAddr;
	result = PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(	cmdBuffer, 2); // Adds CRC_A and checks that the response is MF_ACK.
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}
	return STATUS_OK;
} // End MIFARE_Transfer()


/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Support functions
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Wrapper for MIFARE protocol communication.
 * Adds CRC_A, executes the Transceive command and checks that the response is MF_ACK or a timeout.
 * 
 * @return STATUS_OK on success, STATUS_??? otherwise.
 */
byte MFRC522::PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(	byte *sendData,		///< Pointer to the data to transfer to the FIFO. Do NOT include the CRC_A.
										byte sendLen,		///< Number of bytes in sendData.
										bool acceptTimeout	///< True => A timeout is also success
									) {
	byte result;
	byte cmdBuffer[18]; // We need room for 16 bytes data and 2 bytes CRC_A.

	// Sanity check
	if (sendData == NULL || sendLen > 16) {
		return STATUS_INVALID;
	}
	
	// Copy sendData[] to cmdBuffer[] and add CRC_A
	memcpy(cmdBuffer, sendData, sendLen);
	result = PCD_CalculateCRC(cmdBuffer, sendLen, &cmdBuffer[sendLen]);
	if (result != STATUS_OK) { 
		return result;
	}
	sendLen += 2;
	
	// Transceive the data, store the reply in cmdBuffer[]
	byte waitIRq = 0x30;		// RxIRq and IdleIRq
	byte cmdBufferSize = sizeof(cmdBuffer);
	byte validBits = 0;
	result = PCD_CommunicateWithPICC(PCD_Transceive, waitIRq, cmdBuffer, sendLen, cmdBuffer, &cmdBufferSize, &validBits);
	if (acceptTimeout && result == STATUS_TIMEOUT) {
		return STATUS_OK;
	}
	if (result != STATUS_OK) {
		return result;
	}
	// The PICC must reply with a 4 bit ACK
	if (cmdBufferSize != 1 || validBits != 4) {
		return STATUS_ERROR;
	}
	if (cmdBuffer[0] != MF_ACK) {
		return STATUS_MIFARE_NACK;
	}
	return STATUS_OK;
} // End PCD_MIFARE_Transceive()

/**
 * Returns a string pointer to a status code name.
 * 
 */
const char *MFRC522::GetStatusCodeName(byte code	///< One of the StatusCode enums.
										) {
	switch (code) {
		case STATUS_OK:				return "Success."; break;
		case STATUS_ERROR:			return "Error in communication."; break;
		case STATUS_COLLISION:		return "Collission detected."; break;
		case STATUS_TIMEOUT:		return "Timeout in communication."; break;
		case STATUS_NO_ROOM:		return "A buffer is not big enough."; break;
		case STATUS_INTERNAL_ERROR:	return "Internal error in the code. Should not happen."; break;
		case STATUS_INVALID:		return "Invalid argument."; break;
		case STATUS_CRC_WRONG:		return "The CRC_A does not match."; break;
		case STATUS_MIFARE_NACK:	return "A MIFARE PICC responded with NAK."; break;
		default:
			return "Unknown error";
...

This file has been truncated, please download it to see its full contents.

LiquidCrystal_I2C.cpp

C/C++
// Based on the work by DFRobot

#include "LiquidCrystal_I2C.h"
#include <inttypes.h>
#if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100

#include "Arduino.h"

#define printIIC(args)	Wire.write(args)
inline size_t LiquidCrystal_I2C::write(uint8_t value) {
	send(value, Rs);
	return 1;
}

#else
#include "WProgram.h"

#define printIIC(args)	Wire.send(args)
inline void LiquidCrystal_I2C::write(uint8_t value) {
	send(value, Rs);
}

#endif
#include "Wire.h"



// When the display powers up, it is configured as follows:
//
// 1. Display clear
// 2. Function set: 
//    DL = 1; 8-bit interface data 
//    N = 0; 1-line display 
//    F = 0; 5x8 dot character font 
// 3. Display on/off control: 
//    D = 0; Display off 
//    C = 0; Cursor off 
//    B = 0; Blinking off 
// 4. Entry mode set: 
//    I/D = 1; Increment by 1
//    S = 0; No shift 
//
// Note, however, that resetting the Arduino doesn't reset the LCD, so we
// can't assume that its in that state when a sketch starts (and the
// LiquidCrystal constructor is called).

LiquidCrystal_I2C::LiquidCrystal_I2C(uint8_t lcd_Addr,uint8_t lcd_cols,uint8_t lcd_rows)
{
  _Addr = lcd_Addr;
  _cols = lcd_cols;
  _rows = lcd_rows;
  _backlightval = LCD_NOBACKLIGHT;
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::init(){
	init_priv();
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::init_priv()
{
	Wire.begin();
	_displayfunction = LCD_4BITMODE | LCD_1LINE | LCD_5x8DOTS;
	begin(_cols, _rows);  
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::begin(uint8_t cols, uint8_t lines, uint8_t dotsize) {
	if (lines > 1) {
		_displayfunction |= LCD_2LINE;
	}
	_numlines = lines;

	// for some 1 line displays you can select a 10 pixel high font
	if ((dotsize != 0) && (lines == 1)) {
		_displayfunction |= LCD_5x10DOTS;
	}

	// SEE PAGE 45/46 FOR INITIALIZATION SPECIFICATION!
	// according to datasheet, we need at least 40ms after power rises above 2.7V
	// before sending commands. Arduino can turn on way befer 4.5V so we'll wait 50
	delay(50); 
  
	// Now we pull both RS and R/W low to begin commands
	expanderWrite(_backlightval);	// reset expanderand turn backlight off (Bit 8 =1)
	delay(1000);

  	//put the LCD into 4 bit mode
	// this is according to the hitachi HD44780 datasheet
	// figure 24, pg 46
	
	  // we start in 8bit mode, try to set 4 bit mode
   write4bits(0x03 << 4);
   delayMicroseconds(4500); // wait min 4.1ms
   
   // second try
   write4bits(0x03 << 4);
   delayMicroseconds(4500); // wait min 4.1ms
   
   // third go!
   write4bits(0x03 << 4); 
   delayMicroseconds(150);
   
   // finally, set to 4-bit interface
   write4bits(0x02 << 4); 


	// set # lines, font size, etc.
	command(LCD_FUNCTIONSET | _displayfunction);  
	
	// turn the display on with no cursor or blinking default
	_displaycontrol = LCD_DISPLAYON | LCD_CURSOROFF | LCD_BLINKOFF;
	display();
	
	// clear it off
	clear();
	
	// Initialize to default text direction (for roman languages)
	_displaymode = LCD_ENTRYLEFT | LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT;
	
	// set the entry mode
	command(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | _displaymode);
	
	home();
  
}

/********** high level commands, for the user! */
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::clear(){
	command(LCD_CLEARDISPLAY);// clear display, set cursor position to zero
	delayMicroseconds(2000);  // this command takes a long time!
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::home(){
	command(LCD_RETURNHOME);  // set cursor position to zero
	delayMicroseconds(2000);  // this command takes a long time!
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::setCursor(uint8_t col, uint8_t row){
	int row_offsets[] = { 0x00, 0x40, 0x14, 0x54 };
	if ( row > (_numlines-1) ) {
		row = _numlines-1;    // we count rows starting w/0
	}
	command(LCD_SETDDRAMADDR | (col + row_offsets[row]));
}

// Turn the display on/off (quickly)
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::noDisplay() {
	_displaycontrol &= ~LCD_DISPLAYON;
	command(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | _displaycontrol);
}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::display() {
	_displaycontrol |= LCD_DISPLAYON;
	command(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | _displaycontrol);
}

// Turns the underline cursor on/off
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::noCursor() {
	_displaycontrol &= ~LCD_CURSORON;
	command(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | _displaycontrol);
}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::cursor() {
	_displaycontrol |= LCD_CURSORON;
	command(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | _displaycontrol);
}

// Turn on and off the blinking cursor
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::noBlink() {
	_displaycontrol &= ~LCD_BLINKON;
	command(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | _displaycontrol);
}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::blink() {
	_displaycontrol |= LCD_BLINKON;
	command(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | _displaycontrol);
}

// These commands scroll the display without changing the RAM
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::scrollDisplayLeft(void) {
	command(LCD_CURSORSHIFT | LCD_DISPLAYMOVE | LCD_MOVELEFT);
}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::scrollDisplayRight(void) {
	command(LCD_CURSORSHIFT | LCD_DISPLAYMOVE | LCD_MOVERIGHT);
}

// This is for text that flows Left to Right
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::leftToRight(void) {
	_displaymode |= LCD_ENTRYLEFT;
	command(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | _displaymode);
}

// This is for text that flows Right to Left
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::rightToLeft(void) {
	_displaymode &= ~LCD_ENTRYLEFT;
	command(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | _displaymode);
}

// This will 'right justify' text from the cursor
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::autoscroll(void) {
	_displaymode |= LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT;
	command(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | _displaymode);
}

// This will 'left justify' text from the cursor
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::noAutoscroll(void) {
	_displaymode &= ~LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT;
	command(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | _displaymode);
}

// Allows us to fill the first 8 CGRAM locations
// with custom characters
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::createChar(uint8_t location, uint8_t charmap[]) {
	location &= 0x7; // we only have 8 locations 0-7
	command(LCD_SETCGRAMADDR | (location << 3));
	for (int i=0; i<8; i++) {
		write(charmap[i]);
	}
}

// Turn the (optional) backlight off/on
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::noBacklight(void) {
	_backlightval=LCD_NOBACKLIGHT;
	expanderWrite(0);
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::backlight(void) {
	_backlightval=LCD_BACKLIGHT;
	expanderWrite(0);
}



/*********** mid level commands, for sending data/cmds */

inline void LiquidCrystal_I2C::command(uint8_t value) {
	send(value, 0);
}


/************ low level data pushing commands **********/

// write either command or data
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::send(uint8_t value, uint8_t mode) {
	uint8_t highnib=value&0xf0;
	uint8_t lownib=(value<<4)&0xf0;
       write4bits((highnib)|mode);
	write4bits((lownib)|mode); 
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::write4bits(uint8_t value) {
	expanderWrite(value);
	pulseEnable(value);
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::expanderWrite(uint8_t _data){                                        
	Wire.beginTransmission(_Addr);
	printIIC((int)(_data) | _backlightval);
	Wire.endTransmission();   
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::pulseEnable(uint8_t _data){
	expanderWrite(_data | En);	// En high
	delayMicroseconds(1);		// enable pulse must be >450ns
	
	expanderWrite(_data & ~En);	// En low
	delayMicroseconds(50);		// commands need > 37us to settle
} 


// Alias functions

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::cursor_on(){
	cursor();
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::cursor_off(){
	noCursor();
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::blink_on(){
	blink();
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::blink_off(){
	noBlink();
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::load_custom_character(uint8_t char_num, uint8_t *rows){
		createChar(char_num, rows);
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::setBacklight(uint8_t new_val){
	if(new_val){
		backlight();		// turn backlight on
	}else{
		noBacklight();		// turn backlight off
	}
}

void LiquidCrystal_I2C::printstr(const char c[]){
	//This function is not identical to the function used for "real" I2C displays
	//it's here so the user sketch doesn't have to be changed 
	print(c);
}


// unsupported API functions
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::off(){}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::on(){}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::setDelay (int cmdDelay,int charDelay) {}
uint8_t LiquidCrystal_I2C::status(){return 0;}
uint8_t LiquidCrystal_I2C::keypad (){return 0;}
uint8_t LiquidCrystal_I2C::init_bargraph(uint8_t graphtype){return 0;}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::draw_horizontal_graph(uint8_t row, uint8_t column, uint8_t len,  uint8_t pixel_col_end){}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::draw_vertical_graph(uint8_t row, uint8_t column, uint8_t len,  uint8_t pixel_row_end){}
void LiquidCrystal_I2C::setContrast(uint8_t new_val){}

	

LiquidCrystal_I2C.h

C/C++
//YWROBOT
#ifndef LiquidCrystal_I2C_h
#define LiquidCrystal_I2C_h

#include <inttypes.h>
#include "Print.h" 
#include <Wire.h>

// commands
#define LCD_CLEARDISPLAY 0x01
#define LCD_RETURNHOME 0x02
#define LCD_ENTRYMODESET 0x04
#define LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL 0x08
#define LCD_CURSORSHIFT 0x10
#define LCD_FUNCTIONSET 0x20
#define LCD_SETCGRAMADDR 0x40
#define LCD_SETDDRAMADDR 0x80

// flags for display entry mode
#define LCD_ENTRYRIGHT 0x00
#define LCD_ENTRYLEFT 0x02
#define LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT 0x01
#define LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT 0x00

// flags for display on/off control
#define LCD_DISPLAYON 0x04
#define LCD_DISPLAYOFF 0x00
#define LCD_CURSORON 0x02
#define LCD_CURSOROFF 0x00
#define LCD_BLINKON 0x01
#define LCD_BLINKOFF 0x00

// flags for display/cursor shift
#define LCD_DISPLAYMOVE 0x08
#define LCD_CURSORMOVE 0x00
#define LCD_MOVERIGHT 0x04
#define LCD_MOVELEFT 0x00

// flags for function set
#define LCD_8BITMODE 0x10
#define LCD_4BITMODE 0x00
#define LCD_2LINE 0x08
#define LCD_1LINE 0x00
#define LCD_5x10DOTS 0x04
#define LCD_5x8DOTS 0x00

// flags for backlight control
#define LCD_BACKLIGHT 0x08
#define LCD_NOBACKLIGHT 0x00

#define En B00000100  // Enable bit
#define Rw B00000010  // Read/Write bit
#define Rs B00000001  // Register select bit

class LiquidCrystal_I2C : public Print {
public:
  LiquidCrystal_I2C(uint8_t lcd_Addr,uint8_t lcd_cols,uint8_t lcd_rows);
  void begin(uint8_t cols, uint8_t rows, uint8_t charsize = LCD_5x8DOTS );
  void clear();
  void home();
  void noDisplay();
  void display();
  void noBlink();
  void blink();
  void noCursor();
  void cursor();
  void scrollDisplayLeft();
  void scrollDisplayRight();
  void printLeft();
  void printRight();
  void leftToRight();
  void rightToLeft();
  void shiftIncrement();
  void shiftDecrement();
  void noBacklight();
  void backlight();
  void autoscroll();
  void noAutoscroll(); 
  void createChar(uint8_t, uint8_t[]);
  void setCursor(uint8_t, uint8_t); 
#if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
  virtual size_t write(uint8_t);
#else
  virtual void write(uint8_t);
#endif
  void command(uint8_t);
  void init();

////compatibility API function aliases
void blink_on();						// alias for blink()
void blink_off();       					// alias for noBlink()
void cursor_on();      	 					// alias for cursor()
void cursor_off();      					// alias for noCursor()
void setBacklight(uint8_t new_val);				// alias for backlight() and nobacklight()
void load_custom_character(uint8_t char_num, uint8_t *rows);	// alias for createChar()
void printstr(const char[]);

////Unsupported API functions (not implemented in this library)
uint8_t status();
void setContrast(uint8_t new_val);
uint8_t keypad();
void setDelay(int,int);
void on();
void off();
uint8_t init_bargraph(uint8_t graphtype);
void draw_horizontal_graph(uint8_t row, uint8_t column, uint8_t len,  uint8_t pixel_col_end);
void draw_vertical_graph(uint8_t row, uint8_t column, uint8_t len,  uint8_t pixel_col_end);
	 

private:
  void init_priv();
  void send(uint8_t, uint8_t);
  void write4bits(uint8_t);
  void expanderWrite(uint8_t);
  void pulseEnable(uint8_t);
  uint8_t _Addr;
  uint8_t _displayfunction;
  uint8_t _displaycontrol;
  uint8_t _displaymode;
  uint8_t _numlines;
  uint8_t _cols;
  uint8_t _rows;
  uint8_t _backlightval;
};

#endif

RFID.h

C/C++
/**
 * MFRC522.h - Library to use ARDUINO RFID MODULE KIT 13.56 MHZ WITH TAGS SPI W AND R BY COOQROBOT.
 * Based on code Dr.Leong   ( WWW.B2CQSHOP.COM )
 * Created by Miguel Balboa (circuitito.com), Jan, 2012.
 * Rewritten by Søren Thing Andersen (access.thing.dk), fall of 2013 (Translation to English, refactored, comments, anti collision, cascade levels.)
 * Released into the public domain.
 * 
 * Please read this file for an overview and then MFRC522.cpp for comments on the specific functions.
 * Search for "mf-rc522" on ebay.com to purchase the MF-RC522 board. 
 * 
 * There are three hardware components involved:
 * 1) The micro controller: An Arduino
 * 2) The PCD (short for Proximity Coupling Device): NXP MFRC522 Contactless Reader IC
 * 3) The PICC (short for Proximity Integrated Circuit Card): A card or tag using the ISO 14443A interface, eg Mifare or NTAG203.
 * 
 * The microcontroller and card reader uses SPI for communication.
 * The protocol is described in the MFRC522 datasheet: http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MFRC522.pdf
 * 
 * The card reader and the tags communicate using a 13.56MHz electromagnetic field.
 * The protocol is defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3 Identification cards -- Contactless integrated circuit cards -- Proximity cards -- Part 3: Initialization and anticollision".
 * A free version of the final draft can be found at http://wg8.de/wg8n1496_17n3613_Ballot_FCD14443-3.pdf
 * Details are found in chapter 6, Type A – Initialization and anticollision.
 * 
 * If only the PICC UID is wanted, the above documents has all the needed information.
 * To read and write from MIFARE PICCs, the MIFARE protocol is used after the PICC has been selected.
 * The MIFARE Classic chips and protocol is described in the datasheets:
 *		1K:   http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf
 * 		4K:   http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S703x.pdf
 * 		Mini: http://www.idcardmarket.com/download/mifare_S20_datasheet.pdf
 * The MIFARE Ultralight chip and protocol is described in the datasheets:
 *		Ultralight:   http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf
 * 		Ultralight C: http://www.nxp.com/documents/short_data_sheet/MF0ICU2_SDS.pdf
 * 
 * MIFARE Classic 1K (MF1S503x):
 * 		Has 16 sectors * 4 blocks/sector * 16 bytes/block = 1024 bytes.
 * 		The blocks are numbered 0-63.
 * 		Block 3 in each sector is the Sector Trailer. See http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf sections 8.6 and 8.7:
 * 				Bytes 0-5:   Key A
 * 				Bytes 6-8:   Access Bits
 * 				Bytes 9:     User data
 * 				Bytes 10-15: Key B (or user data)
 * 		Block 0 is read only manufacturer data.
 * 		To access a block, an authentication using a key from the block's sector must be performed first.
 * 		Example: To read from block 10, first authenticate using a key from sector 3 (blocks 8-11).
 * 		All keys are set to FFFFFFFFFFFFh at chip delivery.
 * 		Warning: Please read section 8.7 "Memory Access". It includes this text: if the PICC detects a format violation the whole sector is irreversibly blocked.
 *		To use a block in "value block" mode (for Increment/Decrement operations) you need to change the sector trailer. Use PICC_SetAccessBits() to calculate the bit patterns.
 * MIFARE Classic 4K (MF1S703x):
 * 		Has (32 sectors * 4 blocks/sector + 8 sectors * 16 blocks/sector) * 16 bytes/block = 4096 bytes.
 * 		The blocks are numbered 0-255.
 * 		The last block in each sector is the Sector Trailer like above.
 * MIFARE Classic Mini (MF1 IC S20):
 * 		Has 5 sectors * 4 blocks/sector * 16 bytes/block = 320 bytes.
 * 		The blocks are numbered 0-19.
 * 		The last block in each sector is the Sector Trailer like above.
 * 
 * MIFARE Ultralight (MF0ICU1):
 * 		Has 16 pages of 4 bytes = 64 bytes.
 * 		Pages 0 + 1 is used for the 7-byte UID.
 * 		Page 2 contains the last chech digit for the UID, one byte manufacturer internal data, and the lock bytes (see http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf section 8.5.2)
 * 		Page 3 is OTP, One Time Programmable bits. Once set to 1 they cannot revert to 0.
 * 		Pages 4-15 are read/write unless blocked by the lock bytes in page 2. 
 * MIFARE Ultralight C (MF0ICU2):
 * 		Has 48 pages of 4 bytes = 64 bytes.
 * 		Pages 0 + 1 is used for the 7-byte UID.
 * 		Page 2 contains the last chech digit for the UID, one byte manufacturer internal data, and the lock bytes (see http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf section 8.5.2)
 * 		Page 3 is OTP, One Time Programmable bits. Once set to 1 they cannot revert to 0.
 * 		Pages 4-39 are read/write unless blocked by the lock bytes in page 2. 
 * 		Page 40 Lock bytes
 * 		Page 41 16 bit one way counter
 * 		Pages 42-43 Authentication configuration
 * 		Pages 44-47 Authentication key 
 */
#ifndef MFRC522_h
#define MFRC522_h

#include <Arduino.h>
#include <SPI.h>

class MFRC522 {
public:
	// MFRC522 registers. Described in chapter 9 of the datasheet.
	// When using SPI all addresses are shifted one bit left in the "SPI address byte" (section 8.1.2.3)
	enum PCD_Register {
		// Page 0: Command and status
		//						  0x00			// reserved for future use
		CommandReg				= 0x01 << 1,	// starts and stops command execution
		ComIEnReg				= 0x02 << 1,	// enable and disable interrupt request control bits
		DivIEnReg				= 0x03 << 1,	// enable and disable interrupt request control bits
		ComIrqReg				= 0x04 << 1,	// interrupt request bits
		DivIrqReg				= 0x05 << 1,	// interrupt request bits
		ErrorReg				= 0x06 << 1,	// error bits showing the error status of the last command executed 
		Status1Reg				= 0x07 << 1,	// communication status bits
		Status2Reg				= 0x08 << 1,	// receiver and transmitter status bits
		FIFODataReg				= 0x09 << 1,	// input and output of 64 byte FIFO buffer
		FIFOLevelReg			= 0x0A << 1,	// number of bytes stored in the FIFO buffer
		WaterLevelReg			= 0x0B << 1,	// level for FIFO underflow and overflow warning
		ControlReg				= 0x0C << 1,	// miscellaneous control registers
		BitFramingReg			= 0x0D << 1,	// adjustments for bit-oriented frames
		CollReg					= 0x0E << 1,	// bit position of the first bit-collision detected on the RF interface
		//						  0x0F			// reserved for future use
		
		// Page 1:Command
		// 						  0x10			// reserved for future use
		ModeReg					= 0x11 << 1,	// defines general modes for transmitting and receiving 
		TxModeReg				= 0x12 << 1,	// defines transmission data rate and framing
		RxModeReg				= 0x13 << 1,	// defines reception data rate and framing
		TxControlReg			= 0x14 << 1,	// controls the logical behavior of the antenna driver pins TX1 and TX2
		TxASKReg				= 0x15 << 1,	// controls the setting of the transmission modulation
		TxSelReg				= 0x16 << 1,	// selects the internal sources for the antenna driver
		RxSelReg				= 0x17 << 1,	// selects internal receiver settings
		RxThresholdReg			= 0x18 << 1,	// selects thresholds for the bit decoder
		DemodReg				= 0x19 << 1,	// defines demodulator settings
		// 						  0x1A			// reserved for future use
		// 						  0x1B			// reserved for future use
		MfTxReg					= 0x1C << 1,	// controls some MIFARE communication transmit parameters
		MfRxReg					= 0x1D << 1,	// controls some MIFARE communication receive parameters
		// 						  0x1E			// reserved for future use
		SerialSpeedReg			= 0x1F << 1,	// selects the speed of the serial UART interface
		
		// Page 2: Configuration
		// 						0x20			// reserved for future use
		CRCResultRegH			= 0x21 << 1,	// shows the MSB and LSB values of the CRC calculation
		CRCResultRegL			= 0x22 << 1,
		// 						  0x23			// reserved for future use
		ModWidthReg				= 0x24 << 1,	// controls the ModWidth setting?
		// 						  0x25			// reserved for future use
		RFCfgReg				= 0x26 << 1,	// configures the receiver gain
		GsNReg					= 0x27 << 1,	// selects the conductance of the antenna driver pins TX1 and TX2 for modulation 
		CWGsPReg				= 0x28 << 1,	// defines the conductance of the p-driver output during periods of no modulation
		ModGsPReg				= 0x29 << 1,	// defines the conductance of the p-driver output during periods of modulation
		TModeReg				= 0x2A << 1,	// defines settings for the internal timer
		TPrescalerReg			= 0x2B << 1,	// the lower 8 bits of the TPrescaler value. The 4 high bits are in TModeReg.
		TReloadRegH				= 0x2C << 1,	// defines the 16-bit timer reload value
		TReloadRegL				= 0x2D << 1,
		TCounterValueRegH		= 0x2E << 1,	// shows the 16-bit timer value
		TCounterValueRegL		= 0x2F << 1,
		
		// Page 3:Test Registers
		// 						  0x30			// reserved for future use
		TestSel1Reg				= 0x31 << 1,	// general test signal configuration
		TestSel2Reg				= 0x32 << 1,	// general test signal configuration
		TestPinEnReg			= 0x33 << 1,	// enables pin output driver on pins D1 to D7
		TestPinValueReg			= 0x34 << 1,	// defines the values for D1 to D7 when it is used as an I/O bus
		TestBusReg				= 0x35 << 1,	// shows the status of the internal test bus
		AutoTestReg				= 0x36 << 1,	// controls the digital self test
		VersionReg				= 0x37 << 1,	// shows the software version
		AnalogTestReg			= 0x38 << 1,	// controls the pins AUX1 and AUX2
		TestDAC1Reg				= 0x39 << 1,	// defines the test value for TestDAC1
		TestDAC2Reg				= 0x3A << 1,	// defines the test value for TestDAC2
		TestADCReg				= 0x3B << 1		// shows the value of ADC I and Q channels
		// 						  0x3C			// reserved for production tests
		// 						  0x3D			// reserved for production tests
		// 						  0x3E			// reserved for production tests
		// 						  0x3F			// reserved for production tests
	};
	
	// MFRC522 comands. Described in chapter 10 of the datasheet.
	enum PCD_Command {
		PCD_Idle				= 0x00,		// no action, cancels current command execution
		PCD_Mem					= 0x01,		// stores 25 bytes into the internal buffer
		PCD_GenerateRandomID	= 0x02,		// generates a 10-byte random ID number
		PCD_CalcCRC				= 0x03,		// activates the CRC coprocessor or performs a self test
		PCD_Transmit			= 0x04,		// transmits data from the FIFO buffer
		PCD_NoCmdChange			= 0x07,		// no command change, can be used to modify the CommandReg register bits without affecting the command, for example, the PowerDown bit
		PCD_Receive				= 0x08,		// activates the receiver circuits
		PCD_Transceive 			= 0x0C,		// transmits data from FIFO buffer to antenna and automatically activates the receiver after transmission
		PCD_MFAuthent 			= 0x0E,		// performs the MIFARE standard authentication as a reader
		PCD_SoftReset			= 0x0F		// resets the MFRC522
	};
	
	// Commands sent to the PICC.
	enum PICC_Command {
		// The commands used by the PCD to manage communication with several PICCs (ISO 14443-3, Type A, section 6.4)
		PICC_CMD_REQA			= 0x26,		// REQuest command, Type A. Invites PICCs in state IDLE to go to READY and prepare for anticollision or selection. 7 bit frame.
		PICC_CMD_WUPA			= 0x52,		// Wake-UP command, Type A. Invites PICCs in state IDLE and HALT to go to READY(*) and prepare for anticollision or selection. 7 bit frame.
		PICC_CMD_CT				= 0x88,		// Cascade Tag. Not really a command, but used during anti collision.
		PICC_CMD_SEL_CL1		= 0x93,		// Anti collision/Select, Cascade Level 1
		PICC_CMD_SEL_CL2		= 0x95,		// Anti collision/Select, Cascade Level 1
		PICC_CMD_SEL_CL3		= 0x97,		// Anti collision/Select, Cascade Level 1
		PICC_CMD_HLTA			= 0x50,		// HaLT command, Type A. Instructs an ACTIVE PICC to go to state HALT.
		// The commands used for MIFARE Classic (from http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf, Section 9)
		// Use PCD_MFAuthent to authenticate access to a sector, then use these commands to read/write/modify the blocks on the sector.
		// The read/write commands can also be used for MIFARE Ultralight.
		PICC_CMD_MF_AUTH_KEY_A	= 0x60,		// Perform authentication with Key A    ;0x60=1100000
		PICC_CMD_MF_AUTH_KEY_B	= 0x61,		// Perform authentication with Key B
		PICC_CMD_MF_READ		= 0x30,		// Reads one 16 byte block from the authenticated sector of the PICC. Also used for MIFARE Ultralight.
		PICC_CMD_MF_WRITE		= 0xA0,		// Writes one 16 byte block to the authenticated sector of the PICC. Called "COMPATIBILITY WRITE" for MIFARE Ultralight.
		PICC_CMD_MF_DECREMENT	= 0xC0,		// Decrements the contents of a block and stores the result in the internal data register.
		PICC_CMD_MF_INCREMENT	= 0xC1,		// Increments the contents of a block and stores the result in the internal data register.
		PICC_CMD_MF_RESTORE		= 0xC2,		// Reads the contents of a block into the internal data register.
		PICC_CMD_MF_TRANSFER	= 0xB0,		// Writes the contents of the internal data register to a block.
		// The commands used for MIFARE Ultralight (from http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf, Section 8.6)
		// The PICC_CMD_MF_READ and PICC_CMD_MF_WRITE can also be used for MIFARE Ultralight.
		PICC_CMD_UL_WRITE		= 0xA2		// Writes one 4 byte page to the PICC.
	};
	
	// MIFARE constants that does not fit anywhere else
	enum MIFARE_Misc {
		MF_ACK					= 0xA,		// The MIFARE Classic uses a 4 bit ACK/NAK. Any other value than 0xA is NAK.
		MF_KEY_SIZE				= 6			// A Mifare Crypto1 key is 6 bytes.
	};

	// PICC types we can detect. Remember to update PICC_GetTypeName() if you add more.
	enum PICC_Type {
		PICC_TYPE_UNKNOWN		= 0,
		PICC_TYPE_ISO_14443_4	= 1,	// PICC compliant with ISO/IEC 14443-4 
		PICC_TYPE_ISO_18092		= 2, 	// PICC compliant with ISO/IEC 18092 (NFC)
		PICC_TYPE_MIFARE_MINI	= 3,	// MIFARE Classic protocol, 320 bytes
		PICC_TYPE_MIFARE_1K		= 4,	// MIFARE Classic protocol, 1KB
		PICC_TYPE_MIFARE_4K		= 5,	// MIFARE Classic protocol, 4KB
		PICC_TYPE_MIFARE_UL		= 6,	// MIFARE Ultralight or Ultralight C
		PICC_TYPE_MIFARE_PLUS	= 7,	// MIFARE Plus
		PICC_TYPE_TNP3XXX		= 8,	// Only mentioned in NXP AN 10833 MIFARE Type Identification Procedure
		PICC_TYPE_NOT_COMPLETE	= 255	// SAK indicates UID is not complete.
	};
	
	// Return codes from the functions in this class. Remember to update GetStatusCodeName() if you add more.
	enum StatusCode {
		STATUS_OK				= 1,	// Success
		STATUS_ERROR			= 2,	// Error in communication
		STATUS_COLLISION		= 3,	// Collission detected
		STATUS_TIMEOUT			= 4,	// Timeout in communication.
		STATUS_NO_ROOM			= 5,	// A buffer is not big enough.
		STATUS_INTERNAL_ERROR	= 6,	// Internal error in the code. Should not happen ;-)
		STATUS_INVALID			= 7,	// Invalid argument.
		STATUS_CRC_WRONG		= 8,	// The CRC_A does not match
		STATUS_MIFARE_NACK		= 9		// A MIFARE PICC responded with NAK.
	};
	
	// A struct used for passing the UID of a PICC.
	typedef struct {
		byte		size;			// Number of bytes in the UID. 4, 7 or 10.
		byte		uidByte[10];
		byte		sak;			// The SAK (Select acknowledge) byte returned from the PICC after successful selection.
	} Uid;
	
	// A struct named MIFARE_Key used for passing a MIFARE Crypto1 key
	typedef struct {
		byte		keyByte[MF_KEY_SIZE];//keyByte[MF_KEY_SIZE] is an array with six bytes; keys A and B are each 6 bytes long (see defintion of MF_KEY_SIZE above)
	} MIFARE_Key;
	
	// Member variables
	Uid uid;								// Used by PICC_ReadCardSerial().
	
	// Size of the MFRC522 FIFO
	static const byte FIFO_SIZE = 64;		// The FIFO is 64 bytes.
	
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Functions for setting up the Arduino
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	MFRC522(byte chipSelectPin, byte resetPowerDownPin);
	void setSPIConfig();
	
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Basic interface functions for communicating with the MFRC522
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	void PCD_WriteRegister(byte reg, byte value);//Writes a byte to the specified register in the MFRC522 chip.
	void PCD_WriteRegister(byte reg, byte count, byte *values);
	byte PCD_ReadRegister(byte reg);
	void PCD_ReadRegister(byte reg, byte count, byte *values, byte rxAlign = 0);
	void setBitMask(unsigned char reg, unsigned char mask);
	void PCD_SetRegisterBitMask(byte reg, byte mask);
	void PCD_ClearRegisterBitMask(byte reg, byte mask);
	byte PCD_CalculateCRC(byte *data, byte length, byte *result);

	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Functions for manipulating the MFRC522
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	void PCD_Init();
	void PCD_Reset();
	void PCD_AntennaOn();
	
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Functions for communicating with PICCs
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	byte PCD_TransceiveData(byte *sendData, byte sendLen, byte *backData, byte *backLen, byte *validBits = NULL, byte rxAlign = 0, bool checkCRC = false);
	byte PCD_CommunicateWithPICC(byte command, byte waitIRq, byte *sendData, byte sendLen, byte *backData = NULL, byte *backLen = NULL, byte *validBits = NULL, byte rxAlign = 0, bool checkCRC = false);

	byte PICC_RequestA(byte *bufferATQA, byte *bufferSize);
	byte PICC_WakeupA(byte *bufferATQA, byte *bufferSize);
	byte PICC_REQA_or_WUPA(	byte command, byte *bufferATQA, byte *bufferSize);	
	byte PICC_Select(Uid *uid, byte validBits = 0);
	byte PICC_HaltA();
	
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Functions for communicating with MIFARE PICCs
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	byte PCD_Authenticate(byte command, byte blockAddr, MIFARE_Key *key, Uid *uid);//this method is used to authenticate a certain block for writing or reading
    //command: See enumerations above -> PICC_CMD_MF_AUTH_KEY_A	= 0x60 (=1100000),		// this command performs authentication with Key A
    //MIFARE_Key *key is a pointer to the MIFARE_Key struct defined above, this struct needs to be defined for each block. New cards have all A/B= FF FF FF FF FF FF
    //Uid *uid is a pointer to the UID struct that contains the user ID of the card.
	void PCD_StopCrypto1();
    //these two methods read and write entire blocks. It seems there is no method to just access one byte.
	byte MIFARE_Read(byte blockAddr, byte *buffer, byte *bufferSize);//MIFARE_Read(block number (0-15), byte array containing 16 values, number of bytes in block (=16))
	byte MIFARE_Write(byte blockAddr, byte *buffer, byte bufferSize);//MIFARE_Write(block number (0-15), byte array containing 16 values, number of bytes in block (=16))
 	byte MIFARE_Decrement(byte blockAddr, long delta);
	byte MIFARE_Increment(byte blockAddr, long delta);
 	byte MIFARE_Restore(byte blockAddr);
 	byte MIFARE_Transfer(byte blockAddr);
	byte MIFARE_Ultralight_Write(byte page, byte *buffer, byte bufferSize);
	
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Support functions
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	byte PCD_MIFARE_Transceive(	byte *sendData, byte sendLen, bool acceptTimeout = false);
	const char *GetStatusCodeName(byte code);
	byte PICC_GetType(byte sak);
	const char *PICC_GetTypeName(byte type);
	void PICC_DumpToSerial(Uid *uid);
	void PICC_DumpMifareClassicToSerial(Uid *uid, byte piccType, MIFARE_Key *key);
	void PICC_DumpMifareClassicSectorToSerial(Uid *uid, MIFARE_Key *key, byte sector);
	void PICC_DumpMifareUltralightToSerial();
	void MIFARE_SetAccessBits(byte *accessBitBuffer, byte g0, byte g1, byte g2, byte g3);
	
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	// Convenience functions - does not add extra functionality
	/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
	bool PICC_IsNewCardPresent();
	bool PICC_ReadCardSerial();	

private:
	byte _chipSelectPin;		// Arduino pin connected to MFRC522's SPI slave select input (Pin 24, NSS, active low)
	byte _resetPowerDownPin;	// Arduino pin connected to MFRC522's reset and power down input (Pin 6, NRSTPD, active low)
	byte MIFARE_TwoStepHelper(byte command, byte blockAddr,	long data);
};

#endif

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Ravee Tansangworn

Ravee Tansangworn

5 projects • 7 followers

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