Guillermo Guillen
Created November 2, 2019 © CC BY-NC-SA

Autonomous Robot Controlled with Pyro Sensors

Proximity Sensor KEMET used in two applications to avoid crashes: 1) Open and close the gate, and 2) Stop the self driving car

AdvancedFull instructions provided24 hours25

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Proximity Sensor- Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Module
KEMET Electronics Corporation Proximity Sensor- Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Module
×2
Arduino Mega 2560 & Genuino Mega 2560
Arduino Mega 2560 & Genuino Mega 2560
×1
Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
×1
SG90 Micro-servo motor
SG90 Micro-servo motor
×1
LED (generic)
LED (generic)
×1
Proximity Sensor
Proximity Sensor
×3
SparkFun Full-Bridge Motor Driver Breakout - L298N
SparkFun Full-Bridge Motor Driver Breakout - L298N
×1
Rechargeable Battery, 7.2 V
Rechargeable Battery, 7.2 V
×1
HC-05 Bluetooth
×2
Gearmotor 120 rpm (generic)
×2
Ball caster
×1

Software apps and online services

Arduino IDE
Arduino IDE

Hand tools and fabrication machines

3D Printer (generic)
3D Printer (generic)

Story

Read more

Custom parts and enclosures

1.2 Printing and Assembling the Control Panel

STL and GCODE files of a security system from autonomous robot with SS-430 KEMET Proximity Sensor

2.2 Printing and Assembling the Autonomous Robot

STL and GCODE files of an autonomous microrobot

Schematics

1. Open And Close the Gate

Electrical connection of the security system with SS-430 proximity sensor

2. Stop the Self-Driving Car - Transmitter

2 Stop the Self-Driving Car - Receiver

Code

OpenAndCloseTheGate

Arduino
1. OPEN/CLOSE THE GATE
This code is part of the first section and must be uploaded to the Mega 2560 board
// AUTHOR: GUILLERMO ALBERTO PEREZ GUILLEN

#include <Servo.h>

Servo myservo;  // create servo object to control a servo
int pos = 0;    // variable to store the servo position

// int Pyro = A1;
unsigned long PyroRead = 0;
unsigned long IR_threshold = 199900;

// Note: SS-430 has two pulses of 200msec per detection.
// IR_threshold is in microsec (usec), therefore 199.9 msec threshold

int LED = 7;
int Detected = LOW;
int IR_sensed = 0;

void setup() {
  myservo.attach(5);  // attaches the servo on pin 9 to the servo object
  pinMode (7, OUTPUT); //LED Connected to Pin 7
  pinMode (A1,INPUT); // IR Sensor connected to A1
}

void loop() {
  while ((IR_sensed < 2)){ //Break after 2 good triggers
    PyroRead = pulseIn(A1, HIGH); //Measure trigger point
    if(PyroRead > IR_threshold){ //Make sure trigger is over 198msec)
      IR_sensed++; //Mark as a good trigger
    }
  }

  if (Detected == HIGH){ // Turn LED OFF if it was previous ON
  Detected = LOW;
  digitalWrite(7, LOW);
  for (pos = 180; pos >= 0; pos -= 1) { // goes from 180 degrees to 0 degrees
    myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
    delay(10);                       // waits 10ms for the servo to reach the position
    }
  }
  
  else {
  Detected = HIGH; // Turn LED ON if it was previous OFF
  digitalWrite(7, HIGH);
  for (pos = 0; pos <= 180; pos += 1) { // goes from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
    // in steps of 1 degree
    myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
    delay(10);                       // waits 10ms for the servo to reach the position
    }
  }
PyroRead = 0; // Reset readings
IR_sensed = 0;

delay(750); // Accept triggers after a 750 msec

}

StopMotion

Arduino
2. STOP MOTION
This code is part of the second section and must be uploaded to the Mega 2560 board
// AUTHOR: GUILLERMO ALBERTO PEREZ GUILLEN

unsigned long PyroRead = 0;
unsigned long IR_threshold = 199900;

// Note: SS-430 has two pulses of 200msec per detection.
// IR_threshold is in microsec (usec), therefore 198msec threshold

int LED = 7;
int Detected = LOW;
int IR_sensed = 0;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);
  pinMode (7, OUTPUT); //LED Connected to Pin 7
  pinMode (A1,INPUT); // IR Sensor connected to A1
}

void loop() {
  while ((IR_sensed < 2)){ //Break after 2 good triggers
    PyroRead = pulseIn(A1, HIGH); //Measure trigger point
    if(PyroRead > IR_threshold){ //Make sure trigger is over 198msec)
      IR_sensed++; //Mark as a good trigger
    }
  }

  digitalWrite(7, HIGH);
  Serial.println("a");  // stop the autonomous robot
  delay(5000);  
  digitalWrite(7, LOW);
  Serial.println(" ");  // stop the autonomous robot 

PyroRead = 0; // Reset readings
IR_sensed = 0;
}

AutonomousRobot

Arduino
2. STOP MOTION
This code is part of the second section and most be uploaded to de Arduino UNO board
// AUTHOR: GUILLERMO ALBERTO PEREZ GUILLEN

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

SoftwareSerial ModuloHC05 (2, 4);  // 2 is the pin RX ARDUINO - TX BT 
                                   // 4 is the pin TX ARDUINO - RX BT

//Motor A
int EN1 = 3; //Speed control - EN1
int IN1 = 9; //Direction - IN1
int IN2 = 8; //Direction - IN2

//Motor B
int EN2 = 5; //Speed control - EN2
int IN3 = 11; //Direction - IN3
int IN4 = 12; //Direction - IN4

int error=0;
int dif,difAnt=0;
const float Kp=0.1;
const float Kd=0.1;

int option;
int led = 13;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);        
  ModuloHC05.begin(9600);     
  pinMode(led, OUTPUT); 
  pinMode(A0, INPUT); //left
  pinMode(A1, INPUT); //forward
  pinMode(A2, INPUT); //right
  pinMode(EN1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(EN2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN3, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN4, OUTPUT);
// Set initial rotation direction
  digitalWrite(IN1, LOW);
  digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
  digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
  digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);  
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);    
}

void loop() {

char option;
float volts1 =  analogRead(A1)*0.0048828125;  // value from sensor * (5/1024) 
float distance1 = 9*pow(volts1, -1); // worked out from datasheet graph //GP2Y0A41SK0F - 4 a 30 cm
 
dif = analogRead(A2) - analogRead(A0);
error = floor(Kp*(dif)+Kd*(difAnt-dif));
difAnt=dif;
int d0 = constrain(255 - error, 0, 255);//left speed
int d1 = constrain(255 + error, 0, 255);//right speed
 
  if (distance1 <= 10){
    stop();
    delay(100);

    //backward 275 ms
    {
      digitalWrite(IN1, LOW);
      digitalWrite(IN2, HIGH);
      analogWrite(EN1, 128);  // average speed
      digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
      digitalWrite(IN4, HIGH);
      analogWrite(EN2, 128);  // average speed          
    }
    delay(275);
    stop();
    delay(100);

    //turn to the left 90 degrees
      digitalWrite(IN1, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
      analogWrite(EN1, 128);  
      digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
      digitalWrite(IN4, HIGH);
      analogWrite(EN2, 128);    
    delay(480);
    stop();
    delay(100);       
  }
  //move forward with calculated speeds
      digitalWrite(IN1, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
      analogWrite(EN1, d0);  
      digitalWrite(IN3, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
      analogWrite(EN2, d1);  
  delay(50);

  if (ModuloHC05.available()){    
    //we read the option sent
    option=ModuloHC05.read();
    Serial.write(option);

    if(option=='a') {
      digitalWrite(led, HIGH);
      stop(); 
      delay(5000); 
      digitalWrite(led, LOW);    
    }
  }      
}

void stop(){
digitalWrite(IN1, LOW);
digitalWrite(IN2, LOW);
digitalWrite(IN3, LOW);
digitalWrite(IN4, LOW);
delay(10);
}

Project repository: "Autonomous Robot Controlled with Pyro Sensors"

Folders: 1) AutonomousRobot; 2) OpenAndCloseTheGate; and 3) StopMotion

Credits

Guillermo Guillen

Guillermo Guillen

39 projects • 36 followers
Communications and Electronics Engineering, and Writer... "Don´t Expect Different Results If Your Habits Are The Same" A Einstein

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