Story
Digital Filters
One of the most demanding applications for fast arithmetic is digital flitering. Atmel application note AVR201 shows how to use the hardware multiplier to make a multiplyandaccumulate operation (MAC). The MAC is the basis for computing the sum of terms for any digital filter, such as the "Direct Form II Transposed" implementation of a difference equation shown below (from the Matlab filter description).
a(1)*y(n) = b(1)*x(n) + b(2)*x(n1) + ... + b(nb+1)*x(nnb)  a(2)*y(n1)  ...  a(na+1)*y(nna)
The y(n)
term is the current filter output and x(n)
is the current filter input. The a's and b's are constant coefficients, determined by some design process, such as the Matlab butter
routine. Usually, a(1)
is set to one, but as we shall see below, setting a(1)
to a power of two may increase filter accuracy, at the cost of slightly increased execution time. The y(nx)
and x(nx)
are past outputs and inputs respectively. You can use the Matlab (or Octave) filter design tools to determine the a's and b's. All arithmetic is is 8:8 fixec point. See http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/Math/index.html
Second order IIR Filters for 8:8The 2nd order IIR code (plus uart.c, uart.h)
implements an efficient MAC operation using the multfix asssembler
macro and then uses it to produce a second order IIR filter. The
time/sample is 140 cycles. It would not be reasonable to use this
fixedpoint algorithm with normalized cutoff frequency below about 0.10 because of the lack of relative precision in the b
coefficients. With a normalized cutoff frequency=0.25, the impulse response is accurate to within 1% of peak response. With a normalized cutoff frequency=0.10,
the impulse response is accurate within 5% of peak response. If you
need a cutoff lower than 0.10, consider changing your hardware sample
rate or using CIC filters (see below) to lower the effective sample
rate. It is also possible to scale up all of the filter coefficients by
16 to give 4 bits more percision, then divide the output of the filter
by 16 for each sample. IIRfilterScaledGCC644_macro.c is an example which executes in 190 cycles. This Matlab program allows you to simulate the effect of coefficient truncation on filter response.
Another approach used in speech synthesis is to use impulseinvariant second order filters which are a bit quicker to execute because they
zero out two of the general second order filter coefficients (b(2) and b(3)
).
These filters can also be designed onthefly in a C program, rather
than using Matlab. It is possible to build bandpass and lowpass filters
using this technique, but you need to be careful of aliasing effects and
the sensitivity of coefficients to 8bit truncation. This matlab program allows you to estimate truncation errors and design filters. Note that
the bandpass filters have a gain greater than one in the passband, so
you may need to scale output to avoid overflow of fixed point numbers.
At 8000 Hz sample rate, you can expect to get reasonable bandpass filter
accuracy down to F=250, BW=25 Hz, and lowpass accuracy down to BW=250
Hz.
Impulse invariant second order filter design process:
 Choose the bandpass center frequency,
F
. If the filter is to be lowpass, setF=0
.  Choose the bandpass bandwidth,
BW
. If the filter is to be lowpass, the cutoff frequency isBW/2
.  Compute:
C = exp(2*pi*BW*T)
whereT=1/(sample rate)
 Compute:
B = 2 * exp(pi*BW*T) * cos(2*pi*F*T)
whereT=1/(sample rate)
 Compute:
A = 1  B  C
 The filter output at time i is then
output(i)=A*input(i) + B*output(i1) + C*output(i2)
 In some circumstances generating a table of A, B and C at the
frequencies you need will be the fastest way to change between filters.
These two programs suggest how you might do this for lowpass and bandpass filters.
Second order and fourth order Butterworth IIR Filters for 8:8
If you use a Butterworth approximation for lowpass (maximally
flat IIR filter) then you can simplify the general IIR filter further to
only three MAC operations. Since b(1)=b(3)=0.5*b(2)
, the three multiplies on the first line below can be combined into one multiply by sum of inputs, with one input shifted left.
b(1)*x(n)+b(2)*x(n1)+b(3)*x(n2) = b(1)*x(n)+2*b(1)*x(n1)+b(1)*x(n2) = b(1)* (x(n)+(x(n1)<<1)+x(n2))
While a Butterworth high pass design yields b(1)=b(3)=0.5*b(2)
,
b(1)*x(n)+b(2)*x(n1)+b(3)*x(n2) = b(1)*x(n)2*b(1)*x(n1)+b(1)*x(n2) = b(1)* (x(n)(x(n1)<<1)+x(n2))
And a Butterworth bandpass pass design yields b(1)=b(3) and b(2)=0
,
b(1)*x(n)+b(2)*x(n1)+b(3)*x(n2) = b(1)*x(n)+0*b(1)*x(n1)b(1)*x(n2) = b(1)* (x(n)x(n2))
A 4th order Butterworth bandpass filter (2 poles on lower side, 2 on upper side) can be done in 5 multiplies since b(1)=b(5)=0.5*b(3) and b(2)=b(4)=0
. Impulse response accuracy is within 2% after 10 samples with cutoffs of [0.25 0.35]
.
As the bandwidth of the filter gets smaller, the b coefficients get
smaller also and roundoff errors get worse. Various tools exist to
choose filter coefficients, for example the Matlab command [b,a]=butter(2,[Flow,Fhigh])
will generate the coefficients for this bandpass filter.
Since adding and shifting are much faster than multiplying ,we get a speedup. The 2pole butterworth high and low pass execute in 107 cycles, the 2pole bandpass in 103 cycles and the 4pole butterworth bandpass in 200 cycles. All three second order filters and the fourth order bandpass are in one test program.
As before, accuracy of fixed point filters is always a concern. As
the filter bandwidth gets narrower, the accuracy decreases. This is
because the b(n)
coefficients become smaller and
roundoff/truncation error dominates. We can minimize truncation errors
by scaling the filter coefficients and the filter code. As an example,
if we set a(1)=16, and multiply all of the other coefficients by 16,
then the value of the output does not change, but 4 more bits are
available to store the scaled filter coefficients.
CIC filters
CIC filters are a form of optimized FIR filter with uniform coefficients. For example, an FIR filter with coefficients 0.2*[1 1 1 1 1], which is a 5 point running average, could be implemented using a CIC filter. For general use, CIC filters are considered crude, but they are widely used as a antialiasing prefilter before downsampling a signal to a slower sample rate. See also Multirate Techniques and CIC Filters by Robert Lacoste, Circuit Cellar issue 231, Oct 2009, page 50ff.
This CIC filter example is a fourth order filter and 4times downsampler. The filter attenuates frequencies above the new (lower) Nyquist frequency by about 50 db (factor of 300). The effective passband is about 0.25 of the new Nyquist frequency. A matlab test program is included as a comment in the C source code. The filter takes 170 cycles when it is only integrating, but 360 cycles when it is doing the downsampling and comb filtering. A version with better bandwidth incorporates a Chebyshev compensator to increase the passband to about 0.42 of the new Nyquist frequency. The Chebyshev filter uses ripple in the passband to compensate for droop in the CIC filter. The filter takes 180 cycles when it is integrating, 290 cycles when it is integrating and Chebyshev filtering, and 360 cycles when it is doing the downsampling and comb filtering. You could interleave other IIR filter operations into the remaining filter phases. Another version of the fourth order filter only downsamples by a factor of 2, but keeps the Chebyshev compensator for good bandwidth.
This CIC filter is a second order filter and 4times downsampler. The filter attenuates frequencies above the new (lower) Nyquist frequency by about 25 db (factor of 17). The effective passband is about 0.4 of the new Nyquist frequency. The filter takes 100 cycles when it is only integrating, but 190 cycles when it is doing the downsampling and comb filtering. Significant aliasing can occur with this filter, but it may be good enough for some applications where speed is more important that quality.
Sound synthesis
KarplusStrong Algorithm, digital waveguides
The KarplusStrong Algorithm (KSA) for plucked string synthesis is a special case of the digital waveguide technique for musical instrument synthesis. The KSA is particularly well suited for implementation on a microcontroller, and was originally programmed on an Intel 8080! The simplest version hardly needs fixed point arithmetic, but better approximations do require some more sophisticated digital filters. The basic algorithm fills a circular buffer (delay line) with white noise, then lowpass filters the shifted output of the buffer and adds it back into itself. The length of the buffer (along with an allpass fractional tuning filter and the sample rate) determine the fundamental of the simulated string. The type of lowpass filter in the feedback determines the timber. Prefiltering the white noise before loading the buffer changes the pluck transient timber. A matlab program to generate a plucked string is here. The equivalent C code is here. The C code takes about 200 cycles or 10% of the cpu (at a 8000 Hz sample rate) to generate one string.
Driving the KarplusStrong string with a synthesized waveform expands the range of sounds you can make. In this version of the program, the string can be plucked using an initial waveform consisting of noise, sawtooth, triangle or sine wave. It can also be driven by an exponentially rising and falling waveform of all the previous types. A matlab program was used for testing, then converted to a DDS plus KSA C code. In the C code, each sample takes, around 380 cycles to compute. The PWM output is filtered through a simple RC lowpass with a cutoff of 10,000 radians/sec (about 1600 Hz). The string length of 61 (at 8000 Hz sample rate) corresponds to approximately note C3 (130.8 Hz). The examples below are generated from the C code.
string
Length fine
tune string
damping pluck string
LP_coeff drive freq drive
rise drive
fall drive
amp drive
waveform sound out
61 0.12 0.99 none 1 130.8 2 5 3 saw string_1.wav 61 0.12 0.99 triangle 1      string_2.wav 61 0.12 0.99 white 1      string_3.wav 61 0.12 0.99 white 1 130.8 2 6 2 saw string_4.wav 61 0.12 0.99 none 1 205.3 1 5 0 saw string_5.wav
Changing the loop lowpass filter to a onepole butterworth with a normalized cutoff of 0.2 (800 Hz), putting a onepole butterworth highpass with a cutoff of 0.2 in the output, and introducing some clipping makes a sound which is vaguely clarinetlike. The matlab code. The C code and an example. The C code executes in about 430 cycles/sample at 8000 Hz sample rate.
Changing one plus to a minus makes a brassy percussion sound with a duration determined by the length of the delay line. More information can be found in referneces below.A generalization of the digital waveguide technique involves multiple waveguides, each with a bandpass filter. This is refered to as banded waveguides and is explained in papers by Essl, et.al (see below). The aim of banded waveguide programs is simulate spectrally complicated drum, bar (e.g. vibraphone), or multiplestring instruments. A matlab program to compute one banded waveguide is here. A banded waveguide with several diferent buffer lengths, and hence natural frequencies, (but no interaction between modes) is here. Modifying the program for additive mode interaction changes the sound somewhat. Parameters to control include: ratios of the different circular buffer lengths, width of the bandpass filters for each buffer, value of the damping factors for each buffer, and weights of the additive mixing. Please note that many of these techniques are patented by Stanford University and licensed to Yamaha and others.
ECE4760 projects which have used KSA
 2007 air guitar (video 23MB mp4 ).
 2008 air drums
 2008 dualing banjos
FM synthesis (Also see musical note generation)
An alternative to KarplusStrong physical synthesis is to use FM modulation of a sine wave to approximate the sound of various instruments. Two matlab programs (1, 2) produce various stringlike, chimelike or belllike tones, depending on the FM parameters. A single FM modulator C version for Mega644 executes in about 220 cycles/sample, or about 10% cpu load at a 8000 Hz sample rate. There are several example parameter sets at the end of the C code. Two FM modulations (C program) applied to one DDS takes about 280340 cycles/sample. Both of these programs could easily run at 16000 samples/second for better bandwidth. A third C version includes wave tables for different modulation shapes. The following table is from the third C version.
main
freq main
rise main
fall main
type fm
freq fm
depth fm
decay fm
type sound
out quality
261 0 6 sine 350 8 5 sine fm_1.wav chime
1000 1 4 sine 50 10 5 sine fm_2.wav rod resonator
300 1 6 sine 1000 8 5 sine fm_3.wav bell
600 1 5 sine 150 8 6 tri fm_5.wav electric guitar
300 1 6 sine 1000 8 6 tri fm_4.wav sound effect?
261 4 5 sine 261 7 6 tri fm_6.wav bowed string
Additive synthesis
Additive synthesis attempts to match the Fourier spectrum of the desired sound. A matlab program and C program add three harmonics. The C program takes about 450 cycles/sample. At 8 KHz sample rate this is about 20% of the cpu time. Adding a high quality noise generator to the additive synthesis bumps up execution time to 970 cycles, but can make a steel drum effect. Adding three wavetable options (sine, sawtooth, and triangle) and reducing the quality of the random noise generator takes execution time to around 600 cycles/sample.
For the matlab program, with 5 additive frequencies, the following parameters and sounds give some idea of the capabilities of additive synthesis:
clarinetlike f1 = 262 ;
f2 = 262 *2 ;
f3 = 262 * 3 ;
f4 = 262 * 4 ;
f5 = 262 * 5 ;amp1 = 1; fall_time1 = .7 ; attack_time1 = 0.7 ;
amp2 = .05; fall_time2 = .7 ; attack_time2 = 0.7 ;
amp3 = .5; fall_time3 = .7 ; attack_time3 = 0.7;
amp4 = 0.01; fall_time4 = .7 ; attack_time4 = 0.7 ;
amp5 = .2; fall_time5 = .7 ; attack_time5 = 0.7 ;
plucked string f1 = 262 ;
f2 = 262 *2 ;
f3 = 262 * 3 ;
f4 = 262 * 4 ;
f5 = 262 * 5 ;
amp1 = 1; fall_time1 = .7 ; attack_time1 = 0.01 ;
amp2 = 1; fall_time2 = .3 ; attack_time2 = 0.01 ;
amp3 = .5; fall_time3 = .1 ; attack_time3 = 0.01;
amp4 = .3; fall_time4 = .1 ; attack_time4 = 0.01 ;
amp5 = .1; fall_time5 = .1 ; attack_time5 = 0.01 ;
drum f1 = 262 ;
f2 = 262 * 1.58 ;
f3 = 262 * 3 ;
f4 = 262 * 2.24 ;
f5 = 262 * 2.55;
amp1 = 1; fall_time1 = .7 ; attack_time1 = 0.01 ;
amp2 = 1; fall_time2 = .3 ; attack_time2 = 0.01 ;
amp3 = 1; fall_time3 = .1 ; attack_time3 = 0.01;
amp4 = .3; fall_time4 = .4 ; attack_time4 = 0.01 ;
amp5 = .3; fall_time5 = .1 ; attack_time5 = 0.01 ;
bell f = 523*2.
f1 = f ;
f2 = f * 1.58 ;
f3 = f * 3 ;
f4 = f * 2.24 ;
f5 = f * 2.55;
amp1 = 1; fall_time1 = .7 ; attack_time1 = 0.01 ;
amp2 = 1; fall_time2 = .3 ; attack_time2 = 0.01 ;
amp3 = 1; fall_time3 = .1 ; attack_time3 = 0.01;
amp4 = .3; fall_time4 = .2 ; attack_time4 = 0.01 ;
amp5 = .3; fall_time5 = .1 ; attack_time5 = 0.01 ;
References
 A Tutorial on Digital Sound Synthesis Techniques, Giovanni de Poli,: Computer Music Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Winter, 1983), pp. 826

Physical modeling using digital waveguides
Julius O. Smith, III
Computer Music Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4. (Winter, 1992), pp. 7491. 
Digital Synthesis of PluckedString and Drum Timbres Kevin Karplus; Alex Strong
Computer Music Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2. (Summer, 1983), pp. 4355. 
Extensions of the KarplusStrong PluckedString Algorithm, David A. Jaffe; Julius O. Smith
Computer Music Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2. (Summer, 1983), pp. 5669. 
Theory of Banded Waveguides Essl, Georg, Serafin, Stefania, Cook, Perry R.,Smith, Julius O. (Julius Orion)
Computer Music Journal, Volume 28, Number 1, Spring 2004 
Musical Applications of Banded Waveguides Essl, Georg, Serafin, Stefania, Cook, Perry R.,Smith, Julius O. (Julius Orion)
Computer Music Journal, Volume 28, Number 1, Spring 2004  A review of musical synthesis techniques from 2006 is Discretetime modelling of musical instruments, by Valimaki V, Pakarinen J, Erkut C, Karjalainen M, in REPORTS ON PROGRESS IN PHYSICS 69 (1): 178 JAN 2006
 http://web.eecs.utk.edu/~qi/ece505/project/proj1.pdf
 http://www.eee.hku.hk/~ugsnews/labsheet/level2/lab04.pdf.
 https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~sdill/220Aproject/drums.html#fm
 The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation
Transform methods
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for 8:8
I adapted the int_fft.c program from this webpage. I simplified the program for realonly input and forward direction only (no inverse FFT). The function returns the real and imaginary components of the transform. The table gives the exectuion times in cycles and mSec (at 16 MHz clock) as well as the time to accumulate the input samples at 8 kHz. At an 8 kHz ADC sample rate, the FFT runs faster than real time up to 128 samples (FFT time < Sample time). In an actual spectrum estimation application, you would need to add time for windowing the input and combining the real and imaginary outputs (sums of squares or sums of absolute values) to get the power or amplitude. The program crashes for any FFT size greater than 128 because of memory overflow.
Code is FFTfixGCC644_macro.c, uart.c, uart.h.
FFT size cycles FFT time (mSec)
Sample time (mSec) at 8 kHz
16
8,040
0.5
2
32
18,340
1.2
4
64
41,520
2.6
8
128
92,700
5.8
16
There are many uses for a FFT including filtering, convolution, and pattern matching. Some applets.
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for 8:8
The DCT is a variant of the FFT which is used in image, sound, speech, and video processing and compression. I wrote 8,16 and 32point versions based on the code in a web page by Yann Guidon <whygee@fcpu.org> shows an optimized verion of the DCTII algorithm for 8 points. I modified the code for GCC and assembler. The 16point version was derived by combining two 8point transforms. The book by KR Rao and P Yip Discrete Cosine Transform: Algorithms, Advantages, Applications (Academic Press 1990, pages 6061) show how to combine transforms. The 32point version was derived by combining two 16point transforms. The test program requires uart.c and uart.h.
The 32 point DCTII runs in 4070 cycles. This is fast enough to do some real time speech spectral analysis. At a sample rate of 8 KHz, a 32point transform would cover 4 mSec of samples. Since the first (nonDC) harmonic is 1/2 cycle in a 4 mSec window, the fundamental of the transform is 125 Hz (low enough to catch a male voice fundamental) and the maximum frequency is about 3400 Hz (high enough to catch most information for speech). A matlab program which shows the spectral analysis properties of the DCT is here.
The basis functions for the 8, 16 and 32point versions shown below
are similar to the FFT, but capture gradients with fewer coefficients.
For example, the first basis function (not the zeroth) in all images
encodes an almost linear gradient, something which takes a sum of
several basis functions of a Fourier series. The Matlab program to
generate the plots is here.
Fast Walsh Transform (FWT) for 8:8
I wrote a FWT which
converts a time sequence to coeffieients of the orthogonal Walshfunction basis.
An example of the first 16 basis functions from Jacoby and
64 basis functions from Pichler is shown
below. Odd functions are called sal
, analogous to sine, while
even functions are called cal
. The following functions are in
arranged in sequency order. Sequency is defined as the number of zero
crossings, and is anaogous to arranging sines in frequency order.
 The first algorithm I used was from Manz.
It was first converted to Matlab code, then to C. The Matlab
code compares the FFT and FWT outputs as spectrograms,
then takes the maximum of each time sliced transform and compares these spectrograms.
Examples are spectrogrms for a chirped sine, chirped
square wave, a woodthrush, and a fragment
of human speech. FFT power spectrum is the top row,
FWT sequency spectrum (sum of absolute value of sal and cal coefficients)
is the bottom row. Both transforms are 128 points. The right column of images
has been formed from the left by finding the maximum intensity coefficient
of each spectrogram time slice. Note that the max component of the FFT and
FWT match fairly well. Jacoby has useful information
on using FWT. Ritter has
a good biblography. This C program executes
a 16 point transform in 2120 cycles (with optimization set to
Os
). the program requiresuart.c
anduart.h
.
Note that the output of theFWTfix
routine is not in sequency order (it is actually in dyadic order). Order is not important for some applications. Run theFWTreorder
routine to make a sequency order, but note that you must use the correct lengthreorder
array. The reorder routine takes about 780 cycles to order 16 points.  Removing the normalization from the FWT inner loop drops the execution time to 1995 cycles, but can cause overflow if longer transform lengths are used or if the average data approaches full scale for 8:8 numbers.
 The second algorithm I used was from from Hugh Larson, An algorithm to compute the sequencyordered FWT, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signals, Aug 1976 page 335. This program version is hardcoded for 16points, is unnormalized, and executes in 595 cycles. Including the conversion to sequency order, it is over 4 times faster than the general version above.
 This C program attempts to light up leds corresponding to which sequency bands have the most energy. The program takes a 16 point FWT at a sample rate of 7.8 kHz, throws away the DC component, adds the absolute value of the sal and cal components, then lights an LED if the component is the maximum and above a threshold. It requires an analog input on A.0 and LEDs attached to PORTC.
Credits
Bruce Land
Bruce Land is a Senior Lecturer in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at Cornell University.
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