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Connect USB Joystick to Commodore C64

HW equipment for classic home computers such as C64 gets old. Joysticks wear out and are hardly repairable. Can new equipment be used?

IntermediateFull instructions provided1,995
Connect USB Joystick to Commodore C64

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
×1
USB Host Shield
Not the original Arduino USB Host Shield, but the one which is linked in Github at the uSB Host Shield library. Available in various online shops. Compare the pictures.
×1
USB 2.0 Hub, 4 Port
USB 2.0 Hub, 4 Port
USB Hub wIthout external power supply
×1
General Purpose Transistor NPN
General Purpose Transistor NPN
BC547
×12
Resistor 47.5k ohm
Resistor 47.5k ohm
×6
Through Hole Resistor, 33 kohm
Through Hole Resistor, 33 kohm
×4
Resistor 10k ohm
Resistor 10k ohm
×2
Resistor 220 ohm
Resistor 220 ohm
×2
LED (generic)
LED (generic)
×2
D Sub Connector, 9 Contacts
D Sub Connector, 9 Contacts
×2
Pushbutton Switch, Momentary
Pushbutton Switch, Momentary
×1

Story

Read more

Schematics

C64 USB joystick interface schematic as Eagle .sch-file

Schematic of the circuit to connect the Arduino UNO and the USB Host Shield to the specific breadboard design.

C64 USB joystick interface schematic as PDF

Schematic of the circuit to connect the Arduino UNO and the USB Host Shield to the specific breadboard design.

Code

C64 USB joystick

C/C++
Initializes the USB Host Shield library for PS3 USB joysticks. Reads in and transfers the USB signals from the up to two joysticks to the C64 control port signals.
/*
 Arduino sketch to connect 2 USB joysticks to Commodore C64
 */

/*
 Basis for this sketch: 
 Example sketch for the PS3 USB library - developed by Kristian Lauszus
 For more information visit my blog: http://blog.tkjelectronics.dk/ or
 send me an e-mail:  kristianl@tkjelectronics.com
 */

 /*
  Mapping Competition Pro to --> PS3:
  Front Left Button --> Triangle
  Front Right Button --> Circle
  Rear Left Button (triangle shaped) --> Cross
  Rear Right Button (triangle shaped) --> Square
  Forward --> LeftHatY = 0
  Backward --> LeftHatY = 255
  Left --> LeftHatX = 0
  Right --> LeftHatY = 255
  * 
  */

#include <PS3USB.h>
#include <usbhub.h>
#include <UHS2_gpio.h>

// Satisfy the IDE, which needs to see the include statment in the ino too.
#ifdef dobogusinclude
#include <spi4teensy3.h>
#endif
#include <SPI.h>

#define PRINTREPORT

#define LEFT1   4 //via GPIO_Out4 on USB Host Shield
#define RIGHT1  5 //via GPIO_Out5 on USB Host Shield
#define FORWARD1     2
#define BACKWARD1   3
#define BUTTON1 0   //via GPIO_Out0 on USB Host Shield
#define LEFT2   4
#define RIGHT2  5
#define FORWARD2     6
#define BACKWARD2   7
#define BUTTON2 1   //via GPIO_Out1 on USB Host Shield
#define LED_PORT1   2
#define LED_PORT2   3
#define SWAPBUTTON  0 // via GPIO_In0 on USB Host Shield
#define STATE_BUTTON  0
#define STATE_LEFT  1
#define STATE_RIGHT 2
#define STATE_FORWARD 3
#define STATE_BACKWARD  4


#define JOYSTICK_COUNT  2
#define JOYSTICK_STATES 5

#define DEBOUNCETIME  50


USB Usb;
USBHub     Hub(&Usb);
PS3USB PS3(&Usb); // This will just create the instance
PS3USB PS3_1(&Usb); // This will just create the instance
UHS2_GPIO Gpio(&Usb); // Create a GPIO object

bool joystickState[JOYSTICK_COUNT][JOYSTICK_STATES];
bool joystickSwap = LOW;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);
  #if !defined(__MIPSEL__)
    while (!Serial); // Wait for serial port to connect - used on Leonardo, Teensy and other boards with built-in USB CDC serial connection
  #endif
  
  if (Usb.Init() == -1) {
    Serial.print(F("\r\nOSC did not start"));
    while (1); //halt
  }
  Serial.print(F("\r\nPS3 USB Library Started"));
  
  //initialize joystick states for all joysticks
  for (unsigned char i=0; i<JOYSTICK_COUNT; i++){
    for (unsigned char j=0; j<JOYSTICK_STATES; j++){
      joystickState[i][j] = 0;
    }
  }

  //initialize Output pins
  Gpio.digitalWrite(LEFT1, LOW);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(RIGHT1, LOW);
  digitalWrite(FORWARD1, LOW);
  digitalWrite(BACKWARD1, LOW);
  digitalWrite(LEFT2, LOW);
  digitalWrite(RIGHT2, LOW);
  digitalWrite(FORWARD2, LOW);
  digitalWrite(BACKWARD2, LOW);
  pinMode(LEFT1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(RIGHT1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(FORWARD1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BACKWARD1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(LEFT2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(RIGHT2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(FORWARD2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BACKWARD2, OUTPUT);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(BUTTON1, LOW);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(BUTTON2, LOW);
}

void loop() {
  unsigned char joystickMapping[JOYSTICK_COUNT];
  static bool joystickButtonState[JOYSTICK_COUNT];
  Usb.Task();
  PS3.attachOnInit(USBonInit1);
  PS3_1.attachOnInit(USBonInit2);

 // Shall Joysticks be swapped?
 joystickSwap = ToggleButton(Gpio.digitalRead(SWAPBUTTON));
 
 if(joystickSwap){
  joystickMapping[0] = 1;
  joystickMapping[1] = 0;
  Gpio.digitalWrite(LED_PORT1, LOW);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(LED_PORT2, HIGH);
 }
 else{
  joystickMapping[0] = 0;
  joystickMapping[1] = 1;
  Gpio.digitalWrite(LED_PORT1, HIGH);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(LED_PORT2, LOW);
 }


 // Joystick 1
  if (PS3.PS3Connected || PS3.PS3NavigationConnected) {
    if (PS3.getAnalogHat(LeftHatX) == 0){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_LEFT] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nLeft1")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_LEFT] = false; 
    }

    if (PS3.getAnalogHat(LeftHatX) == 255){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_RIGHT] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nRight1")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_RIGHT] = false; 
    }

    if (PS3.getAnalogHat(LeftHatY) == 0){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_FORWARD] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nForward1")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_FORWARD] = false; 
    }   

    if (PS3.getAnalogHat(LeftHatY) == 255){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_BACKWARD] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nBackward1")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_BACKWARD] = false; 
    }   
  
   
    if (PS3.getButtonPress(TRIANGLE) || PS3.getButtonPress(CIRCLE) || PS3.getButtonPress(CROSS) || PS3.getButtonPress(SQUARE)){
      Serial.print(F("\r\nButton1_on"));   
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_BUTTON] = true;  
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[0]][STATE_BUTTON] = false;  
    }
  }

// Joystick 2
if (PS3_1.PS3Connected || PS3_1.PS3NavigationConnected) {
    if (PS3_1.getAnalogHat(LeftHatX) == 0){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_LEFT] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nLeft2")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_LEFT] = false; 
    }

    if (PS3_1.getAnalogHat(LeftHatX) == 255){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_RIGHT] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nRight2")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_RIGHT] = false; 
    }

    if (PS3_1.getAnalogHat(LeftHatY) == 0){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_FORWARD] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nForward2")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_FORWARD] = false; 
    }   

    if (PS3_1.getAnalogHat(LeftHatY) == 255){
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_BACKWARD] = true;
      Serial.print(F("\r\nBackward2")); 
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_BACKWARD] = false; 
    }
    
  if (PS3_1.getButtonPress(TRIANGLE) || PS3_1.getButtonPress(CIRCLE) || PS3_1.getButtonPress(CROSS) || PS3_1.getButtonPress(SQUARE)){
      Serial.print(F("\r\nButton2_on"));   
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_BUTTON] = true;  
    }
    else{
      joystickState[joystickMapping[1]][STATE_BUTTON] = false;  
    }
  }
  Gpio.digitalWrite(LEFT1, joystickState[0][STATE_LEFT]);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(RIGHT1, joystickState[0][STATE_RIGHT]);
  digitalWrite(FORWARD1, joystickState[0][STATE_FORWARD]);
  digitalWrite(BACKWARD1, joystickState[0][STATE_BACKWARD]);
  digitalWrite(LEFT2, joystickState[1][STATE_LEFT]);
  digitalWrite(RIGHT2, joystickState[1][STATE_RIGHT]);
  digitalWrite(FORWARD2, joystickState[1][STATE_FORWARD]);
  digitalWrite(BACKWARD2, joystickState[1][STATE_BACKWARD]);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(BUTTON1, joystickState[0][STATE_BUTTON]);
  Gpio.digitalWrite(BUTTON2, joystickState[1][STATE_BUTTON]);
}

void USBonInit1(){ //runs once at moment of USB controller initialization
  Serial.println(" USB 1 Connected ");
}

void USBonInit2(){ //runs once at moment of USB controller initialization
  Serial.println(" USB 2 Connected ");
}


bool DebounceButton(bool reading){
  static unsigned int lastDebounceTime;
  static bool lastButtonState;
  static bool buttonState;
      
  if (reading != lastButtonState) {
    // reset the debouncing timer
    lastDebounceTime = millis();
  }  
  
  if ((millis() - lastDebounceTime) > DEBOUNCETIME) {
    // whatever the reading is at, it's been there for longer
    // than the debounce delay, so take it as the actual current state:
      buttonState = reading;
   }
  
  lastButtonState = reading;
  return buttonState;
}


bool ToggleButton(bool reading){
    static bool toggleState = LOW;
    static bool lastButtonState = LOW;
    bool buttonState;

    buttonState = DebounceButton(reading);
    
    if((buttonState != lastButtonState) && (buttonState == HIGH)){
      if (toggleState == LOW){
        toggleState = HIGH;
        Serial.println(" Toggle High");
      }
      else{
        toggleState = LOW;
        Serial.println(" Toggle Low");
      }
    }
    lastButtonState = buttonState;
  return toggleState;
}

Credits

DocSnyderde

DocSnyderde

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